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      AWS Interview Questions

      AWS Interview Questions
      AWS Blog

      AWS Interview Questions

      AWS is an Amazon-provided cloud computing utility. With AWS, you can create, test, launch, and control software and services. This is achieved by means of Amazon’s data centers and associated hardware. With AWS, you have access to three distinct types of cloud computing services: infrastructure, platform, and software.

      AWS lets you set up virtual machines that you can equip with resources like compute power, storage space, analytics, and even networking and device management. AWS provides a pay-as-you-go strategy, allowing you to pay only for the resources you really use each month. Enroll in the AWS Training in Chennai at SLA, master all important AWS interview questions, and get placed.

      When it comes to popular certifications, Amazon AWS is among the top 15. This occupation is likewise highly sought after and well-compensated in the field of information technology. Since many large companies have already moved their data to the cloud or are in the process of doing so, most professionals are also looking to upgrade their knowledge in this area. 

      Our goal with this blog on AWS interview questions and answers is to address every single question that may come up in a job interview about cloud computing, AWS, and related technologies.

      AWS: what is it?

      To help businesses grow and expand, AWS (Amazon Web Services) offers a variety of services, including safe cloud storage, databases, computing resources, and content distribution.

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      What are some of AWS's most important features?

      A few of AWS’s most vital parts are

      • An online Domain Name System (DNS) service known as “Route 53”
      • Simple Email Service: Either a RESTFUL API call or the more traditional SMTP method of sending email can be used. Your AWS account will benefit from increased security and streamlined identity management.
      • Simple Storage Device, abbreviated (S3): It’s the most popular Amazon Web Services (AWS) storage device.
      • EC2: The Elastic Compute Cloud It’s a cloud hosting service that offers computing power on demand. It’s helpful in the face of fluctuating workloads
      • EBS, or Elastic Block Store: It provides volumes of persistent storage that may be attached to EC2 in order to keep data around for longer than a single EC2 instance runs.
      • CloudWatch: It provides access to keys for administrators to track AWS resources. In addition, an alarm can be programmed to alert you in the event of an emergency.

      When using AWS, why is it crucial to have a buffer?

      With the help of an Elastic Load Balancer, all of your Amazon Web Services (AWS) instances will receive their fair share of the incoming traffic. By keeping everything in sync, a buffer makes the system more resilient to sudden spikes in demand or traffic. 

      The parts have a tendency to process requests in an unreliable manner. The buffer crafts a harmony between interconnected devices, ensuring that they all operate at the same speed and provide services more quickly.

      How can I upload a file to Amazon S3 that is larger than 100 MB?

      Using AWS’s multipart upload tool, this is possible. In order to facilitate the upload of larger files, the multipart upload tool was developed. By uploading these segments concurrently, you can cut down on the total upload time. When the upload is complete, the individual components will be combined to form the initial source file.

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      In what ways are subnets useful?

      By constructing subnets, you can break up a massive network into manageable chunks. There are various justifications for establishing such subnetworks. Congestion can be alleviated in some cases by utilizing subnets to confine traffic to their intended network. This aids in the load reduction of the network by properly directing incoming traffic.

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      So, what exactly is EC2?

      A cloud-based Virtual Machine (VM) that you may administer at the operating system level using EC2. This cloud server can be utilized whenever it is most convenient for you, and it is ideal for situations in which you need to deploy servers in the cloud that are functionally identical to those housed on-premises but in which you would like greater freedom in terms of hardware configuration and software versioning.

      How do you define SnowBall?

      SnowBall is a simple app that gives you the ability to move gigabytes of data both within and beyond the environment of Amazon Web Services (AWS).

      CloudWatch: what is it?

      AWS resources like EC2, RDS Instances, and CPU utilization can all be tracked with CloudWatch’s assistance. It can also send alerts based on specific metrics.

      What is the function of the Elastic Transcoder?

      To ensure that your videos play smoothly across a wide range of devices—from tablets and smartphones to computers with varying screen sizes—you may use Elastic Transcoder, an AWS service tool.

      Just what do you mean by "VPC"?

      To explain, VPC means “Virtual Private Cloud.” You can set up your network however you choose. A virtual private cloud, or VPC, is a network that can be kept separate from other cloud networks. Your own private IP address range, gateways to the internet, subnets, and security groups can all be set up.

      Which category of Cloud Service includes DNS and Load Balancing Services?

      The IaaS-Storage Cloud Service includes Domain Name System and Load Balancing.

      Can you tell me about the various Amazon S3 storage classes?

      Amazon S3 provides the following storage types:

      • Amazon S3 Standard
      • Amazon S3 Reduced Redundancy Storage
      • Amazon S3 Standard-Infrequent Access
      • Amazon Glacier

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      Outline the concept of T2 instances.

      T2 Instances are intended to deliver a moderate level of performance as their baseline, with the capability to “burst” to a greater level of performance if the workload necessitates it.

      In AWS, what are "Key Pairs"?

      Key-Pairs are passwords that can only be used to access your Virtual Machines securely. Key-Pairs, which consist of a Public Key and a Private Key, can be used to establish connections to the instances.

      In a VPC, how many Subnets are allowed?

      Each VPC can contain up to 200 Subnets.

      Describe the various Cloud Service models available.

      The many varieties of cloud services include:

      • Software as a Service (SaaS)
      • Platform as a Service (PaaS)
      • Data as a Service (DaaS)
      • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

      Can you make more than a certain amount of S3 buckets?

      One hundred S3 buckets is the maximum allowed.

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      Data on the machine's root drive must be saved in what format?

      Overriding the terminate option allows us to save the data.

      Which situations call for a traditional load balancer versus an application load balancer?

      The traditional load balancer is used to easily distribute traffic amongst several EC2 instances.

      When an application has a multi-tier architecture or a container-based architecture, application load balancing can be used for smarter load balancing. When numerous services need to receive traffic, application load balancing is typically employed.

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      Explain how Amazon Route 53 achieves its low latency and high availability.

      The following are methods used by Amazon Route 53 to provide high availability and minimal latency:

      • Amazon’s DNS servers are located all over the world because the company itself is global. Customers generating queries from anywhere in the world are automatically connected to a nearby DNS server that can respond quickly to their requests.
      • Route 53’s dependability meets the needs of mission-critical software.
      • Locations that are most convenient for the client are used by Route 53 to fulfill requests. Throughout the world, AWS operates data centers. Depending on the needs and the setup, the data can be cached in many data centers situated in various parts of the world. 
      • Route 53 allows for a response to come from any server in any data center that has the necessary information. In this method, the request can be fulfilled by the server that is geographically closest to the client.

      It is evident that a user in India will have their requests processed by the Singapore Server, while a user in the United States will have their requests sent to the Oregon region.

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      What is the procedure for making a request using Amazon S3?

      You can make a request to Amazon S3 by using the REST API or the AWS SDK wrapper libraries, both of which provide access to the underlying Amazon S3 REST API.

      What components makeup AMI?

      The following are components of an AMI:

      • The instance’s initial volume template.
      • Control which AWS accounts can use this AMI to launch instances by setting the launch permissions.
      • The volumes to which the instance will have access when it is launched, as specified by a mapping of block devices.

      How do Availability Zones and Regions work together?

      The geographic region in which an AWS data center is physically situated. However, a group of Availability Zones or Data Centres is called an Amazon Web Services (AWS) Region. 

      By distributing your virtual machines (VMs) among many facilities inside a single AWS Region, you can increase the availability of your services. If a data center in a given Region goes down, the remaining data centers in that Region will continue to handle client requests. As a result, even if one of your Data Centres goes down, your service should still be available thanks to this setup.

      What are the various price points for EC2 instances?

      There are three price tiers for EC2 instances:

      On-Demand Instance

      These cases have been set up as and when they are required to be used. An on-demand instance can be created whenever you feel the need for a new EC2 instance. It’s inexpensive in the short term, but not in the long run.

      Spot Instance

      Instances of this type can be purchased via a bidding system. When compared to On-Demand Instances, these are more cost-effective.

      Reserved Instance

      When you use Amazon Web Services (AWS), you have the option of setting up instances that can be reserved for up to a year. If you anticipate a long-term requirement for an instance, this is the best sort of instance to utilize. A reserved instance can be created in certain situations to help you save a lot of money.

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      When you halt and terminate an EC2 Instance, what exactly are you doing?

      In EC2, stopping an instance is equivalent to closing down the computer. Any attached volumes will remain intact, and the instance can be restarted as needed.

      Conversely, when an instance is deleted, it is treated as if it had been terminated. It is not possible to restart the instance at a later time without erasing all the volumes it had associated to begin with.

      What consistency models does AWS provide for contemporary databases?

      Eventual consistency

      It means that the facts will be the same in the end, but it might not be the case right away. This will speed up response times to client queries, but the first few readers may end up with outdated information. Systems that don’t require data in real-time benefit most from this kind of constancy. 

      If you’re on Twitter or Facebook and you miss the most current tweets or postings for a few seconds, that’s fine.

      Strong Consistency

      It offers instant consistency, meaning that data will be identical on all DB servers. Accordingly. It could take some time for this model to restore data consistency and resume normal request processing. In contrast, this methodology ensures that all responses always provide consistent information.

      What is CloudFront's Geo-Targeting feature, exactly?

      Using a user’s location, “Geo-Targeting” allows for the production of unique content. The more you know about a person, the better you can tailor the material you show them. You might not want to show a user in the United States news about local body elections in India, but you might use Geo-Targeting. Similarly, a user in the United States may be more interested in Baseball Tournament news than one in India.

      What are the benefits of AWS IAM?

      Granular access control for users and groups is made possible using AWS IAM. It’s possible that different users and user groups will require varying degrees of access to the materials developed. IAM allows you to define roles with varying degrees of permission and then assign those roles to users. 

      Federated Access enables you to grant access to the resources for users and apps without having to create the IAM Roles.

      However, On-Demand Instances can be spun up whenever they’re required. The costs associated with such occurrences are constant. Until you manually stop them, such instances will remain active indefinitely.

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      When you say "security group," what do you mean?

      It’s up to you to decide whether or not the public internet should be able to access your newly created AWS instance. In addition, you could only want that instance to be reachable from certain networks.

      By creating a Security Group, you may implement a Virtual Firewall with rule-based access control for your instances. You can allow or disallow access by specifying certain Port Numbers, Networks, or Protocols in a set of rules.

      What are the differences between On-Demand and Spot Instances?

      Some portions of AWS’s compute resources and processing power are idle after an EC2 instance has been created. Spot Instances are made available by AWS for these batches. Spot Instances launch at any time there is spare computing resources. These are viable options if you have some leeway in terms of when and how often your applications run, and if those runs can be interrupted.

      However, On-Demand Instances can be spun up whenever they’re required. The costs associated with such occurrences are constant. Until you manually stop them, such instances will remain active indefinitely.

      Describe the Connection Draining.

      In order to keep serving requests while updating or removing servers, AWS offers a mechanism called “Connection Draining.” 

      The Load Balancer will stop sending requests to an outgoing instance after a certain amount of time has passed, allowing it to finish processing the requests it has already received. When an outgoing instance fails without Connection Draining, any outstanding requests on that instance will fail.

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      Which is better, a stateful or stateless firewall?

      A stateful firewall remembers the current configuration of its ruleset. Only inbound rules need to be defined. It automatically permits outbound traffic to flow based on the established inbound rules. 

      In contrast, Stateless Firewalls necessitate that you establish rules for both incoming and outgoing traffic. 

      For instance, if you let incoming connections on Port 80, a Stateful Firewall will also permit outgoing connections on the same port, while a Stateless Firewall would not.

      What exactly is "Power User Access" in Amazon Web Services?

      The role of an Administrator User is analogous to that of the owner of the associated AWS Resources. He has full control over all AWS resources and can make new ones, remove old ones, edit existing ones, and view them, as well as control who has access to them.

      Power User Access is similar to Administrator Access except that the user cannot administer other users’ accounts or modify their own privileges. A user with Power User Access can do everything a regular user can do, plus create, remove, edit, and view resources, but he cannot give other users access to them.

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      What's the difference between an EBS volume and an Instance Store volume?

      Temporary data needed for an instance to function can be stored on an Instance Store Volume. If the instance is still active, the data will be accessible. When you shut down an instance, the data stored on its Instance Store Volume is destroyed.

      However, an EBS Volume is analogous to a hard drive that retains data indefinitely. When an instance is stopped, the data saved in an EBS Volume will still be accessible.

      In AWS, explain Time Objective and Recovery Point Objective.

      The maximum allowable downtime before service may be fully restored is known as the Recovery Time Objective. This equates to a window of time within which the service outage is tolerable.

      The goal of data recovery is to have as little time as possible pass between backups. The term refers to the quantity of data that can be safely lost between the most recent recovery point and the time service was lost.

      Can a file larger than 100 MB be uploaded to Amazon S3?

      Using AWS’s Multipart Upload Utility, this is possible. The Multipart Upload Utility divides up huge files into smaller chunks that can be submitted singly. By uploading these segments concurrently, you can cut down on the total upload time. Once the upload is complete, the individual components are combined into the original source file.

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      When an EC2 instance is active or halted, can its Private IP address be modified?

      Unfortunately, an EC2 instance’s Private IP Address cannot be modified. When an EC2 instance is started, it is given its own unique, private IP address. This static private IP address is associated with the instance permanently.

      When using Autoscaling, what purpose do lifecycle hooks serve?

      Auto-scaling makes advantage of lifecycle hooks to add a delay to a scale-in or scale-out operation.

      When it comes to user passwords, what restrictions can you put in place?

      Passwords can be governed by the following guidelines:

      • The minimum required length of a password is customizable.
      • Users can be required to include a special character or number in their passwords.
      • Setting parameters for specific character sets, such as capitalization, lowercase, numeric, and special characters.
      • Passwords can be made to expire automatically, password reuse can be prevented, and users can be prompted to change their passwords the next time they log into AWS.
      • When a user’s AWS password expires, you can direct them to contact the account administrator.

      How can you tell if you're overpaying for AWS services and what methods you may use to fix the problem?

      Using the following tools, you can verify that your costs for resource consumption are fair:

      Check the Top Services Table

      The top five most utilized services are displayed in a dashboard within the expense management panel. This will give you an idea of the total cost of the resources in question.

      Cost Explorer

      The last 13 months of your consumption charges can be viewed and analyzed using cost explorer services. A projection of expenses for the next three months is also available.

      AWS Budgets

      You can then set a limit on how much you’ll spend on these services. It will also show you the specifics of your service usage, so you can see if your current plan is affordable for you.

      Cost Allocation Tags

      This is useful for pinpointing which resource was the most expensive for a given month. As a result, you can maintain tabs on your AWS spending by categorizing your resources and assigning a cost tag to each one.

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      When using AWS, what logging options are available by default?

      You may enable logging for the vast majority of AWS services. Additionally, logging is available at the account level in some of them, such as with AWS CloudTrail and AWS Config. Let’s focus on two services in particular:

      CloudTrail for AWS

      This service keeps track of all API requests made to AWS and makes them available for review. The AWS environment can be analyzed for vulnerabilities, resource changes, and compliance audits. The most useful feature of this service is that it can be set up to notify you via AWS SNS whenever fresh logs are received.

      The AWS Configuration 

      This sheds light on the configuration shifts that occur in your setting. This service supplies an AWS inventory with features like configuration change alerts and resource interdependencies. When new logs are received, they can be set up to notify the appropriate people via AWS Simple Notification Service.

      Can you tell me about the various Amazon S3 storage classes?

      In Amazon S3, you can choose from the following storage tiers:

      Amazon S3 Glacier Instant Retrieval storage class

      • Amazon S3 Glacier Deep Archive (S3 Glacier Deep Archive)
      • Amazon S3 Glacier Flexible Retrieval (Formerly S3 Glacier) storage class
      • Amazon S3 Standard (S3 Standard)
      • S3 Outposts storage class
      • Amazon S3 Standard-Infrequent Access (S3 Standard-IA)
      • Amazon S3 One Zone-Infrequent Access (S3 One Zone-IA)
      • Amazon S3 Intelligent-Tiering (S3 Intelligent-Tiering)
      • Amazon S3 Reduced Redundancy Storage

      What kind of measures do you use to keep an eye on your Amazon virtual private cloud?

      In order to keep an eye on VPC, you can:

      Monitoring the Cloud and its Logs

      VPC Flow Records

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      What's the Distinction Between Amazon Rds, Dynamodb, and Redshift?

      Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS) is a database management service offered by Amazon. Updates, patches, and data backups are all taken care of mechanically. Only structured data can be stored and managed by this service. DynamoDB, on the other hand, is a service for managing non-relational, or “NoSQL,” databases. Redshift is a tool for analyzing large amounts of data stored in a warehouse.

      How Does AWS's Disaster Recovery Benefit Your Business?

      With cloud computing, businesses can recover their essential IT systems from a disaster more quickly and cheaply than ever before. Whether it’s a small client workload or a data center catastrophe, the AWS cloud can accommodate it, as it supports several popular disaster recovery models. 

      With data centers located all over the world, AWS can quickly restore your IT systems and data using their cloud-based disaster recovery services.

      What are the repercussions of a failed stack resource creation?

      When a CloudFormation template fails to produce a required stack resource, the resulting resources are rolled back and destroyed. If you run out of Elastic IP addresses or don’t have access to an EC2 AMI, this is a useful option to have.

      When using AWS CloudTrail, how does AWS configuration work?

      With AWS CloudTrail, you can monitor and analyze all API calls made to and from your account. The API caller, the time of the call, the request parameters, and the response elements may all be retrieved with the help of CloudTrail. However, AWS Config logs the current state of your AWS resources as Configuration Items (CIs). 

      An AWS resource’s current state can be determined at any moment with the help of a CI. CloudTrail, on the other hand, makes it easy to discover which API request changed which resource and when. If a security group was improperly set up, Cloud Trail can reveal this as well.

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      In Amazon RDS, what exactly is a maintenance window? How accessible is your database instance during scheduled maintenance?

      Database instance changes, database engine version updates, and software patches can all be scheduled with the help of RDS’s maintenance window. Only patches that improve security and reliability are automatically scheduled. The default number for the maintenance window is 30 minutes, and the DB instance will continue to be accessible during these times, albeit you may notice a slight degradation in performance.

      There has been a dramatic increase in the need for cloud specialists because most firms are now using or planning to employ cloud computing for many of their activities. 

      This is your opportunity to launch a successful career in the cloud computing sector. Training and certification in a popular cloud computing platform, such as Amazon Web Services (AWS), can open doors in the job market. 

      But if you want to launch your AWS career, you’ll need to schedule some interviews and perform brilliantly. To that end, we have compiled a list of common AWS interview questions and answers and provided some guidance on how to respond to them. All kinds of questions about Amazon Web Services (AWS) are covered in this blog, from the most fundamental to the most complex, as well as scenario-based inquiries making it ideal AWS interview questions for experienced professionals too.

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