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      Data Science Interview Questions

      data science interview questions
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      Data Science Interview Questions

      Data Science is a cutting-edge field that has quickly gained worldwide attention. Companies of all sizes are looking for experts in this field. Data Scientists are highly sought after yet in short supply, making them a highly compensated profession in the IT industry.

      In order to help you get ready for your Data Science interview, we’ve compiled a list of the most often-asked  Data Science interview questions. 

      These are some of the most frequently asked Data Science interview questions and answers.to help you succeed in your interview.

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      Data Science Interview Questions for Freshers

      Data Science: What Is It?

      Data Science refers to the multidisciplinary study of how to extract useful information from large amounts of raw data via the application of statistical and mathematical methods and a wide variety of computational tools and methods.

      The data science process can be summarized as follows.

      • The first step is to collect all of the necessary business requirements and data.
      • After data has been collected, it must be cared for through processes like data cleansing, warehousing, staging, and architecture.
      • Data processing performs tasks such as exploring, mining, and analyzing data in order to provide a summary of insights gained from the data.
      • After the initial exploration is complete, the cleaned data is processed using a wide range of algorithms, including predictive analysis, regression, text mining, pattern recognition, and others, as necessary.
      • The final step is delivering the findings to the company in an aesthetically pleasing format. Data visualization, reporting, and the use of other business intelligence tools are all useful here.

      What are the key distinctions when comparing data analytics and data science?

      • Data scientists are tasked with analyzing large amounts of information in order to draw conclusions that can be applied to real-world business problems.
      • For more informed and successful business decisions, data analytics is concerned with verifying hypotheses and information.
      • By providing insights on how to make connections and find solutions to issues of the future, Data Science fosters innovation. While data science focuses on predictive modeling, data analytics focuses on deriving meaning from existing historical contexts.
      • Data analytics is a more focused field that uses fewer tools of statistics and visualization to address specialized problems, while Data Science is a more general field that employs a wide range of mathematical and scientific methods and algorithms to solve complex issues.

      What are the common types of sampling methods? What do you think is sampling's primary benefit?

      Larger datasets necessitate breaking down the data into smaller chunks before analysis can begin. It is essential to collect data samples that are representative of the full population before analyzing them. This requires carefully selecting sample data from the vast amount of data that accurately reflects the complete dataset.

      Statistics can be used to classify sampling methods into two broad categories:

      • The three main methods of probability sampling are the cluster sample, the simple random sample, and the stratified sample.
      • Techniques for non-probabilistic sampling include quota sampling, snowball sampling, convenience sampling, and others.

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      Write down the circumstances that lead to overfitting or underfitting.

      Overfitting occurs when a model works well only on the data used to train it. The model stops working altogether if it is fed any additional data. These outcomes result from the model’s low bias and large variation. It’s easier for decision trees to overfit.

      Underfitting occurs when a model is oversimplified to the point where it fails to accurately represent the data, even when tested on the training set. This is possible when there is a large bias and a little variation. The risk of Underfitting is higher in linear regression.

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      When the p-values are high or low, what does that mean?

      Under the assumption that the null hypothesis is correct, the p-value is the probability of obtaining results that are equal to or greater than those obtained under a specific hypothesis. This figure stands for the possibility that the discrepancy was spotted only by accident.

      • When the p-value is less than 0.05, it indicates that it is unlikely that the null hypothesis describes the data.
      • If the p-value is greater than 0.05, then the null hypothesis is very strong. This signifies that the information is equivalent to a “true null.”
      • The hypothesis is inconclusive if the p-value is equal to 0.05.

      Define the term "confounding variables.

      Misleading factors are also referred to as confounders. These variables are an example of irrelevant variables since they affect both the independent and dependent ones, leading to false associations and mathematical correlations between factors that are statistically related but not logically related.

      What is selection bias, and what causes it?

      When a researcher needs to choose amongst multiple potential participants, they are subject to selection bias. When research participants aren’t chosen at random, a phenomenon known as “selection bias” might occur. The selection bias is also be addressed as a selection effect. The selection bias arises because of the means by which the samples were obtained.

      Below, we break down four distinct forms of selection bias:

      • Sampling bias: occurs when some individuals of a population are less likely to be selected for a sample than others due to the non-random nature of the population. This is an example of sampling bias, a type of systematic inaccuracy.
      • Time frame: Experiments may be terminated early if we attain any extreme value; however, if all variables are similarly invariant, the variables with the biggest variance are more likely to reach the extreme value.
      • Data: It’s when some data is picked at random and the widely accepted criteria aren’t used.
      • Attrition: refers to the gradual dwindling of a group due to natural causes or intentional action. It’s when participants who dropped out of the study are disregarded.

      Give an explanation of the bias-variance trade-off.

      Before proceeding, let’s define bias and variance:


      Bias is a type of ML model error that occurs when an ML Algorithm is oversimplified. During training, a model simplifies its assumptions until it can grasp the target function. Decision Trees, SVM, and similar algorithms all have minimal bias. However, the most biased algorithms are those that rely on logistic and linear regression.


      Errors can also come in the form of variance. When an ML method is made extremely complicated, it is necessary to include it in the model. The model also picks up noise from the training data. Furthermore, it has poor results on the evaluation dataset. Overtraining and heightened sensitivity are possible outcomes.

      There is less of a mistake when the model’s complexity is increased. Because of the reduced bias in the model, this has occurred. However, this is not guaranteed to occur until we reach the ideal position. Overlifting and high variation will become issues if we continue to add complexity to the model after this point. 

      Given that both bias and variance are sources of error in machine learning models, it is crucial that any given model strike a balance between the two in order to deliver optimal results.

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      Let’s look at some illustrations. 

      • One technique that exemplifies low bias and high variance is the K-Nearest Neighbor technique. Increasing the value of k, which increases the number of neighbors, is a simple way to undo this trade-off. As a result, the bias will increase but the variance will decrease.
      • The algorithm for a support vector machine is another illustration. Increasing the value of parameter C changes the trade-off from this algorithm’s high variance to its low bias. As a result, raising the C parameter raises the bias while lowering the variance.

      It’s an easy compromise to make, then. The bias can be increased while the variance can be decreased.

      Explain what a decision tree is

      In the fields of operations research, strategic planning, and machine learning, decision trees are a common model. A decision tree’s reliability increases with the number of nodes or the aforementioned squares.

      Leaves refer to the terminal nodes of a decision tree when the final choice is made. While decision trees are simple and straightforward to construct, their accuracy often leaves much to be desired.

      A kernel: what is it? Describe the kernel's trick

      Kernel functions are sometimes referred to as “generalized dot product” [2] because they can be used to compute the dot product of two vectors xx and yy in some (potentially extremely high dimensional) feature space.

      By translating data that is linearly inseparable to data that is linearly separable in a higher dimension, the kernel trick allows a linear classifier to be used to tackle a non-linear problem.

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      How should a deployed model be kept up to date?

      A deployed model requires the following procedures for upkeep:


      The performance accuracy of all models requires constant monitoring. You should always consider the consequences of a change before making it. It’s important to keep an eye on this to make sure it’s functioning as intended.


      Metrics for evaluating the existing model are calculated to see if an upgrade to the algorithm is required. 


      In order to pick the most effective of the new models, they are compared to one another. 


      The best-performing model is updated based on the current data set.

      Explain recommender systems.

      Based on the user’s stated preferences, a recommender system can make an educated guess as to how highly they would score a certain product. It can be broken down into two sections:

      Collaborative Filtering

      For instance, Last.fm can suggest songs that have been frequently listened to by individuals who share similar tastes. The phrase “customers who bought this also bought…” often appears alongside suggested additional purchases on Amazon when a client makes a transaction.

      Content-based Filtering

      For instance, Pandora analyzes a song’s characteristics to find others with comparable traits and play them back. Here, we focus on the music itself rather than the people who listen to it.

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      When is a resampling performed?

      The purpose of resampling is to improve the precision of a sample and to quantify the uncertainty of population parameters. Training a model on many dataset patterns checks for variance and ensures the model is robust enough to handle it. It is also done while testing models by replacing labels on test data points with fictitious ones or when validating models using random subsets.

      Can you explain what is meant by "Imbalanced Data"?

      If there is a large disparity between how much data falls into each category, we say the data is severely unbalanced. When using these types of data, the performance of the model suffers and becomes inaccurate.

      Does the mean value deviate from the expected value in any way?

      The two are very similar, but it’s important to remember that they’re employed in distinct situations. The expected value is used when discussing random variables, while the mean value is used when discussing the probability distribution.

      When you say "survivorship bias," what do you mean?

      Survivorship bias is the fallacy of giving more weight to elements that were not eliminated during a process and giving less weight to elements that were. This bias can cause erroneous inferences to be drawn.

      What do key performance indicators, lift, model fitting, robustness and overall efficiency (DOE) mean?

      • Key Performance Indicator, or KPI, refers to a metric used to evaluate an organization’s success in meeting its goals.
      • The effectiveness of the target model is quantified in terms of “lift,” which compares the model to a “random choice” model. Lift measures how much better the model does at making predictions than if there was no model at all.
      • Fitting a model to data measures how well that model can explain the data.
      • The system’s ability to adapt to and thrive in the face of unexpected conditions is shown by its robustness.
      • DOE stands for the design of experiments, a method used to test hypotheses about how variables affect results from a certain activity.

      If you were to choose between Python and R to analyze the text, which would you use and why?

      • Python will outperform R in text analytics because of the following reasons:
      • Pandas is a package for Python that adds powerful data analysis features and user-friendly data structures.
      • All kinds of text analytics are faster when done in Python.

      Define the need for data cleaning.

      The fundamental objective of data cleaning is to correct or remove any invalid, corrupt, incorrectly formatted, duplicate, or incomplete information from a dataset. In many cases, this improves the results of marketing and PR initiatives and increases their ROI.

      Gradient Descent: What Is It?

      In order to pinpoint a function’s minimum and maximum values, we employ a first-order optimization method called gradient descent (GD) that iteratively searches for an optimal solution. When trying to minimize a cost/loss function (like in linear regression, for instance), this method is often used in ML and DL.

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      Explain TensorFlow.

      TensorFlow is an open-source software library used in machine learning and AI that is available for free to everyone. It lets developers create dataflow graphs, which are visualizations of information passing between different processing nodes in a network. 

      Define Dropout.

      The term “dropout” is used in the field of data science to describe the random elimination of nodes from a network. They prevent the network from overfitting the data by removing up to 20% of the nodes, which frees up room for the network to converge through a series of iterations.

      Give a list of  five deep learning frameworks.

      Here are a few examples of Deep Learning architectures:

      • Caffe
      • Keras
      • TensorFlow
      • Pytorch
      • Chainer
      • Cognitive Software from Microsoft

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      The ROC curve: what is it?

      For “Receiver Operating Characteristic,” see this. It’s a simple depiction of the true positive and false positive rates, and it lets us determine the optimal true positive to false positive ratio given a range of predicted value probabilities. The better the model, then, the closer the curve is to the top left corner. That is, the superior model would be the one with the larger area under the curve.

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      Explain about decision tree and its function

      A decision tree can be used for both classification and regression, making it a supervised learning algorithm. As a result, the dependent variable here can take either a numeric or a categorical form. 

      A node represents an attribute test, an edge represents an attribute test result, and a leaf node represents a class label. In this situation, the decision is determined by a series of tests that must be passed.

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      Can you explain what a random forest model is?

      It takes input from several different models and combines them into one final result, or, more precisely, it takes input from several different decision trees and combines them into one final result. In this way, the random forest model is composed of individual decision trees.

      What is the difference between data modeling and database design?

      To develop a database, the first step is to create a data model. By analyzing the interconnections between different data models, a conceptual model can be constructed. From there, we move on to the logical model, and finally to the physical schema. Data modeling strategies must be applied in a methodical manner.

      This is the procedure for designing the database. The output of the database design process is a complete data model of the database. A database’s logical structure is an essential part of database design, but physical design options and storage parameters are also relevant considerations.

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      How do you define precision?

      Precision: Data classification and information retrieval methods benefit from increased precision when it comes to obtaining a percentage of correctly predicted class values. The efficiency of making correct positive predictions is the primary metric. 

      What is the purpose of p-value?

      The p-value helps us determine whether or not the available data adequately describes the effect in question. The p-value for the effect ‘E’ and the null hypothesis ‘H0’ is found using the following formula:

      So, how do we clarify an error from a residual error?

      When making a prediction, it is common for there to be a discrepancy between the predicted and observed values of a dataset. Instead, it is the discrepancy between the observed and anticipated values that constitutes the residual error. Since the true values are unknown, the residual error is used to measure how well an algorithm performs. 

      Therefore, we employ residuals to quantify the error relative to the observed values. It aids in providing a more precise estimate of the inaccuracy.

      Why do we utilize the summary function?

      Using R’s summary function, we can see the algorithm’s performance statistics for a given dataset. It is made up of numerous things, including variables, data characteristics, and objects. When the function is supplied data about particular objects, it returns summary statistics about those items. If you need a quick overview of the values in your dataset, a summary function is the way to go.

       In this case, the summary statistics are presented as  Summary Function. Here, the minimum and maximum values for a given column in the dataset are provided. The median, mean, first quartile, and third quartile values are also included to further our comprehension of the data.

      What is the link between Data Science and Machine Learning?

      Many people confuse Data Science with Machine Learning, two related but distinct fields. They both have to do with information. There are, however, key distinctions that let us see how they vary from one another.

      Data science is a broad discipline that works with massive amounts of data and helps us extract meaning from that data. Data Science as a whole handles the various processes required to extract information from data. Important phases of this method include data collection, analysis, processing, visualization, etc.

      However, Machine Learning can be seen as a branch of Data Science. In this case, we are not concerned with the data itself, but rather with learning how to transform it into a functional model that can be utilized  mapping inputs to outputs. For instance, we could train a model to take a picture as input and return whether or not it contains a flower.

      Data scientists collect information, analyze it, and develop conclusions about it. Machine learning is the subfield of data science that focuses on the development of algorithms for model creation. In this way, Machine Learning may be seen as an essential aspect of Data Science.

      Describe the differences between and applications of univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical methods.

      • Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate are all terms we see frequently while working with data analysis. Let’s see if we can figure out what these symbols imply.
      • Univariate analysis is a type of data analysis in which only one column or vector of data is examined for patterns and trends. We can now interpret the data and draw meaningful conclusions from it thanks to this analysis. Analyzing the mass of a community as an illustration.
      • Bivariate analysis is a type of statistical analysis in which only two variables are used to compare and contrast the data. Using this method of analysis, we are able to deduce the connection between the factors. Consider performing a statistical analysis on data that includes temperature and altitude.
      • In multivariate analysis, more than two variables are used to analyze the data. The information may have more than two columns. By conducting this sort of study, we can determine how every other variable (the input variables) influences a single variable (the output variable).
      • Analyzing data on housing costs, which includes demographics like neighborhood and crime rate as well as more specifics like square footage, number of stories, and other features.

      How could we deal with missed data?

      Knowing the percentage of missing data in a column will help you pick the best course of action for dealing with missing data.

      If most of the information in a column is missing, for instance, we should probably get rid of that column unless we have a way to make confident predictions about the missing information. However, if the number of gaps is small, we can use a variety of methods to fill them in.

      One option is to use the most often occurring value in that column, or a default value, such as 

      1. This could be helpful if these values make up the vast majority of the information in that column.
      2. To use the column’s mean value to replace any missing data. Since missing values are more likely to be clustered around the mean than around the mode, this method is typically preferred.
      3. To drop columns is the quickest and easiest solution if we have a massive dataset and a few rows contain missing values in some columns. Given the size of the dataset, omitting a few columns should not cause any issues.

      Explain root-mean-squared error (RMSE).

      RMSE- Root Mean Squared Error. Regression accuracy is quantified by this metric. The root-mean-squared error (RMSE) measures how off a regression model is. The following is the formula for determining RMSE:

      We begin by determining how off the regression model actually is with its predictions. We do this by determining the gaps between observed data and forecasts. The mistakes are then squared.

      We next find the square root of the mean of the squared mistakes and use that as our final step in the process. The root-mean-squared error measures how well a model fits the data, and a lower value indicates better accuracy.

      Can you explain the concept of ensemble learning?

      The end goal of any Data Science and Machine Learning-based model construction effort is a model that reliably predicts and classifies new data in light of previously observed patterns in the training data.

      On the other hand, complicated datasets might make it challenging for a single model to understand the underlying patterns. We boost performance by combining many models when this occurs. The term “ensemble learning” describes this method.

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      Detail the Data Science concept of stacking.

      As an ensemble learning technique, stacking is comparable to bagging and boosting. Weak models with the same learning techniques, such as logistic regression, were the only ones that could be combined in bagging and boosting. We refer to these kinds of models as “homogeneous learners.”

      Stacking, on the other hand, allows us to mix less robust models that make use of many learning techniques. Heterogeneous learners encompass a wide variety of student types. Using a technique known as “stacking,” many, distinct, and weak models or learners are trained separately before being combined into a single predictive model through the training of a “meta-model.”

      Outline the distinctions between Machine Learning and Deep Learning.

      Machine learning is a branch of computer science that focuses on analyzing and interpreting data to train machines to make decisions and carry out certain activities with minimal human intervention.

      Deep Learning, on the other hand, is a subfield of Machine Learning that focuses on developing Machine Learning models with algorithms that attempt to mimic the way the human brain acquires new skills by studying existing ones. In Deep Learning, several-layered neural networks with numerous connections are used extensively.

      When referring to Naive Bayes, what does "Naive" refer to?

      Naive Bayes is a method used in data science. The word “Bayes” appears in the name because it is predicated on the Bayes theorem, which studies the likelihood of one event given the occurrence of another.

      It’s ‘naive’ since it assumes that no two variables in the dataset are interconnected. For data based on the real world, an assumption of this sort is unreasonable. Despite this assumption, it is still very helpful for solving a wide variety of complex problems, such as spam email classification.

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      Can you explain the difference between systematic sampling and cluster sampling?

      Cluster sampling, also called the probability sampling strategy, is a method for selecting a representative sample from a population by first dividing that population into subgroups (e.g., districts or schools) from which a representative sample will be drawn. Each cluster should have somewhat more than a token sample of the whole population.

      Systematic sampling is a type of probability sampling in which individuals are selected at regular intervals, usually every 15th person on a population list. To achieve the same results as simple random sampling, the population can be arranged in a haphazard fashion.

      Describe the Computational Graph.

      A computational graph is a type of directed graph in which the nodes each represent either variables or actions. Variable values can be passed to operations, and operations’ outputs can be passed on to subsequent operations. In this sense, each node in the network may be thought of as a separate function.

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      Describe an Activation function in detail.

      Activation functions are added to artificial neural networks to help them recognize and learn from complex patterns in the data. The activation function decides what information should be passed on to the final neuron, in contrast to the neuron-based approach seen in human brains.

      How Does One Construct a Random Forest?

      Here are the building blocks of a random forest model: 

      • Using a dataset of k records, pick n. 
      • Make separate decision trees for each of the n data values you’re considering. A forecast is derived from each of them.  
      • A voting procedure is applied to each of the findings.  
      • The winner will be the person whose forecast earned the most votes.

      Do You Know How to Prevent Overfitting?

      • Data models may really be overfitting the data. The following methods may be used for this purpose:
      • It will be easier to disentangle the input-output relationships if the dataset used for analysis has more data. 
      • Feature selection is used to identify critical characteristics or experimental conditions. 
      • Reduce the scatter in a data model’s output by employing regularization techniques. 
      • Adding a small bit of noisy data to a dataset is an unusual method of stabilization. Data augmentation refers to this process.

      What does "Cross Validation" mean?

      When testing the transferability of statistical findings to new data sets, researchers often employ cross-validation as a model validation technique. It’s commonly used when forecasting is the primary goal and validity in the real world is being evaluated. 

      Cross-validation is a technique for training a model that uses an independent data set (the validation data set) to check how well the model fits the training data and how well it will generalize to new data.

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