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IoT Interview Questions and Answers

Published On: February 1, 2024

Boost your confidence in the world of IoT with our handy IoT Viva Questions and Answers guide. Whether you’re experienced or new to the field, this resource helps you prepare effectively for interviews. Dive into key topics, grasp industry trends, and master common questions. Elevate your IoT knowledge, showcase your expertise, and stand out in the evolving Internet of Things landscape. For in-depth training, check out our IoT Training in Chennai to acquire the essential skills. Get ready to impress and secure your spot in the exciting field of IoT with our concise guide.

IoT Viva Questions and Answers

Define IoT.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of connected devices equipped with sensors and software, exchanging data over the internet. These devices, found in everyday items and industrial machines, communicate and make decisions autonomously. IoT applications, spanning diverse industries, boost efficiency and enable automation. The data generated by these devices offers valuable insights, enhancing decision-making and convenience in daily life.

In what sectors can IoT bring advantages?

IoT provides advantages across diverse sectors like healthcare, smart cities, industrial automation, agriculture, transportation, energy, retail, logistics, smart homes, and environmental monitoring. It enhances efficiency and performance by enabling applications such as patient monitoring, traffic management, predictive maintenance, and supply chain optimization.

What does the term “smart city” refer to in the context of IoT?

In the realm of IoT, a smart city utilizes connected devices and data analytics to boost efficiency and elevate residents’ well-being. This involves integrating sensors into infrastructure, optimizing transportation, managing energy, ensuring public safety, engaging citizens through technology, and promoting environmental sustainability. The overarching goal is to create a more livable, sustainable, and efficient urban environment.

What are the primary components of the IoT architecture?

In IoT architecture:

  • Devices/Things: Physical objects with sensors collect and send data.
  • Connectivity: Protocols and networks enable device communication.
  • Data Processing: Edge or cloud platforms analyze IoT data.
  • Analytics: Tools derive insights for decisions and trends.
  • User Interface: Graphical interfaces allow user interaction.
  • Security: Measures like encryption protect devices and data.
  • Management: Oversee provisioning, configuration, and updates.
  • Applications: Tailored apps define IoT system purpose and functionality.

These elements together create an efficient IoT ecosystem, facilitating seamless data collection, transmission, processing, and device actions.

What does “embedded system” mean in the context of IoT devices?

In an IoT device, an embedded system is a dedicated computing component integrated into the hardware, tasked with specific functions like processing sensor data and managing device operations. Comprising a microcontroller, memory, and interfaces, it ensures efficient performance within the device’s resource constraints. For instance, in a smart thermostat, the embedded system handles tasks such as reading sensor data and controlling the heating or cooling system based on that information.

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What are the main hardware elements that form an embedded system?

The fundamental hardware elements comprising an embedded system usually consist of:

  • Microcontroller/Microprocessor: Acts as the central processing unit for computations and system control.
  • Memory: Stores program instructions (ROM/Flash) and temporary data (RAM).
  • Input Devices: Serve as interfaces for receiving data from sensors or other external sources.
  • Output Devices: Function as interfaces for conveying information, such as displays or actuators.
  • Clock Source: Supplies timing for system operations.
  • Power Supply: Furnishes electrical power for operation.
  • Communication Interfaces: Facilitate interaction with other devices through standard protocols.
  • Peripherals: Include additional components like timers and converters that enhance functionality.

Can you provide examples of sensors applicable in agriculture?

Various sensors are employed in agriculture to monitor and enhance farming practices.

  • Soil Moisture Sensors: Manage irrigation precisely by measuring soil moisture.
  • Temperature Sensors: Evaluate environmental conditions through air and soil temperature monitoring.
  • Humidity Sensors: Guide irrigation and disease prevention with measurements of air moisture.
  • Light Sensors: Optimize crop growth by assessing sunlight intensity and duration.
  • Wind Sensors: Enhance pesticide application and assess damage by tracking wind speed and direction.
  • Rainfall Sensors: Schedule irrigation and predict floods by measuring precipitation levels.
  • Leaf Wetness Sensors: Predict and manage diseases by determining moisture on leaves.
  • Nutrient Sensors: Optimize fertilizer application by measuring soil nutrient levels.
  • GPS Technology: Enable precision agriculture through accurate mapping and field tracking.
  • Infrared Thermometers: Early detection of stress or diseases by evaluating crop canopy temperature.

What are the key distinctions between Arduino and Raspberry Pi?

FeatureArduinoRaspberry Pi
PurposeGeared towards microcontroller applicationsSuited for general-purpose computing with an OS
Processing PowerLimited, designed for specific tasksMore robust, capable of handling complex computing
Operating SystemLacks a traditional OS, relies on firmware uploadsRuns a complete operating system (e.g., Linux)
Programming LanguageMainly employs C/C++ through Arduino IDESupports various languages like Python, C, and more
ConnectivityLimited I/O pinsDiverse connectivity options, including GPIO, USB, etc.
CostGenerally more affordableSlightly pricier, offers enhanced capabilities
Power ConsumptionLower power consumption, suitable for battery-powered applicationsHigher power consumption, not ideal for low-power scenarios

What function does a gateway serve in the context of IoT?

In IoT, a gateway acts as a crucial intermediary, connecting edge devices to the cloud or a central server. It manages diverse communication protocols, aggregates and pre-processes data, ensures security, performs protocol translation, enables offline operation during network outages, optimizes bandwidth usage, and oversees device management. Essentially, the gateway plays a vital role in facilitating efficient and secure communication between edge devices and centralized systems in the IoT ecosystem.

Can you list some of the communication protocols utilized in IoT?

Various communication protocols are employed in IoT to facilitate effective data exchange between devices. Common IoT communication protocols include:

  • MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport): A lightweight, efficient publish-subscribe protocol suitable for low-bandwidth and high-latency networks.
  • HTTP/HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol/Secure): Standard protocols for web communication, widely used in IoT for data transmission.
  • CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol): Designed for resource-constrained devices and networks, ideal for sensor networks.
  • AMQP (Advanced Message Queuing Protocol): Ensures efficient and secure message queuing, promoting scalable and interoperable communication.
  • DDS (Data Distribution Service): A real-time communication standard for high-performance data distribution, common in industrial IoT applications.
  • WebSocket: Enables full-duplex communication over a single, long-lived connection, suitable for low-latency IoT applications.
  • Bluetooth and BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy): Wireless protocols for short-range IoT applications, widely used in connecting devices to smartphones.
  • LoRaWAN (Long Range Wide Area Network): A low-power, long-range protocol for IoT applications requiring extended communication distances.
  • Zigbee and Z-Wave: Wireless protocols for short-range communication in home automation and IoT devices, known for low power consumption.
  • DDS (Device Device Communication): Facilitates real-time, peer-to-peer communication between devices, commonly used in distributed systems.

What does the term Zigbee Alliance refer to?

The Zigbee Alliance, founded in 2002, is a non-profit organization driving the development and promotion of Zigbee communication standards for IoT wireless connectivity. With a certification program ensuring interoperability, the alliance fosters Zigbee adoption across industries through collaboration among member companies. Zigbee technology, recognized for its energy efficiency and scalability, is widely employed in diverse IoT applications.

What advantages does edge computing bring to IoT?

Edge computing boosts IoT with faster processing, optimized data transfer, and enhanced efficiency:

  • Low Latency: Processing data closer speeds up response times for real-time applications.
  • Bandwidth Optimization: Localized processing reduces data transfers, cutting bandwidth costs.
  • Enhanced Security: Localized data processing heightens privacy and security by minimizing exposure during transit.
  • Operational Efficiency: Edge devices make local decisions, enhancing efficiency in time-sensitive applications.
  • Offline Operation: Devices operate autonomously without continuous cloud connectivity.
  • Scalability: Efficiently distributes computing tasks for improved scalability as IoT device numbers increase.
  • Cost Savings: Local processing cuts cloud resource costs.
  • Real-Time Analytics: Facilitates on-the-spot data analytics, beneficial for applications like predictive maintenance.
  • Mobile Device Support: Suited for mobile or remote IoT deployments, reducing dependence on continuous connectivity.
  • Regulatory Compliance: Enables compliance with data privacy regulations through localized processing of sensitive data.

How can an organization safeguard IoT systems and devices?

To enhance IoT security, focus on these 7 key measures:

  • Authentication and Access Control: Implement strong passwords and multi-factor authentication.
  • Firmware and Software Updates: Regularly update to address vulnerabilities and ensure the latest security measures.
  • Data Encryption: Use robust encryption for data at rest and in transit.
  • Network Segmentation: Isolate IoT devices on separate networks to prevent unauthorized access.
  • Continuous Monitoring: Implement real-time monitoring to promptly detect anomalies in devices and networks.
  • Privacy Measures: Minimize data collection and comply with privacy regulations.
  • Security Audits and Assessments: Conduct periodic audits to identify vulnerabilities in the IoT infrastructure.

What are the primary difficulties in deploying an IoT system?

Implementing an IoT system poses challenges, including:

  • Security and Privacy: Safeguarding IoT devices and networks against cyber threats and addressing data privacy concerns.
  • Interoperability and Standards: Integrating diverse devices and platforms, dealing with interoperability issues, and navigating the lack of universal standards.
  • Scalability and Connectivity: Ensuring scalability to accommodate device growth, optimizing connectivity, and addressing reliability issues.
  • Costs and ROI: Balancing initial investments and ongoing costs with expected return on investment, considering the economic aspects of implementation.
  • Skill Shortages and Legacy Integration: Overcoming skill shortages, particularly in IoT expertise, and addressing challenges related to integrating IoT with existing legacy systems.

How do IoT and IIoT differ from each other?

AspectIoT (Internet of Things)IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things)
Scope and ApplicationBroad range of consumer and industrial applicationsPrimarily focused on industrial use cases
Industry FocusConsumer-oriented industries (healthcare, smart homes)Industrial sectors (manufacturing, energy, logistics)
Data Volume and ComplexityVaries with diverse devices and use casesInvolves large-scale industrial processes, generating complex data
Security and Reliability RequirementsEmphasis on user privacy, lower criticality on reliabilityStrong emphasis on robust security, high reliability for industrial processes
Network RequirementsUtilizes diverse networking technologies (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth)Leverages specialized and robust networking (industrial Ethernet)
Operational GoalsEnhances convenience, efficiency, and lifestyleImproves operational efficiency, reduces downtime, and optimizes industrial processes

What does the term “Thingful” mean?

Thingful operates as an IoT search engine, promoting secure discoverability and interoperability among millions of connected objects worldwide. Users can efficiently search, organize, and access real-time data from both public and private sources within and beyond the IoT ecosystem. The platform serves as a hub for connecting and responding to data generated by a diverse range of IoT devices.

Can you explain the concept of IoT asset tracking?

IoT asset tracking employs connected devices to monitor real-time location and status of physical assets. Equipped with sensors like GPS, these assets transmit data for processing and storage. The system enables ongoing monitoring, analysis, and alerts for deviations from set conditions. Widely applicable, this technology enhances operational efficiency and streamlines asset management.

How can you set up Raspberry Pi in headless mode?

To run a Raspberry Pi in headless mode, follow these steps:

  • Prepare the SD Card: Use a computer to flash the Raspberry Pi OS onto the SD card using a tool like Raspberry Pi Imager.
  • Enable SSH: In the boot directory of the SD card, create an empty file named “ssh” (without any file extension). This enables SSH on the Raspberry Pi.
  • Wi-Fi Setup (Optional): To configure Wi-Fi without connecting a display, create a file named “wpa_supplicant.conf” in the boot directory. Add Wi-Fi details with the following content:


ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=netdev






  • Eject the SD Card: Safely eject the SD card from the computer and insert it into the Raspberry Pi.
  • Power On the Raspberry Pi: Connect the Raspberry Pi to the power source. It will boot up with SSH enabled.
  • Identify the Raspberry Pi’s IP Address: Check your router’s connected devices or use a tool like Angry IP Scanner to find the IP address assigned to the Raspberry Pi.
  • SSH into the Raspberry Pi: Open a terminal on your computer and use the following command to SSH into the Raspberry Pi:

ssh pi@raspberrypi.local

(Replace “raspberrypi” with the actual IP address if needed.)

  • Optional VNC Setup: If you prefer a graphical interface, you can install a VNC server on the Raspberry Pi and connect using a VNC viewer.
  • Optional: Change Password and Update: For security, change the default password using the passwd command, and update the system using:

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

By following these steps, you can set up and run your Raspberry Pi in headless mode without the need for a display.

Can you provide a list of layers in the IoT protocol stack?

The layers of the IoT protocol stack include:

  • Perception Layer: Involves sensors and actuators for interacting with the physical world.
  • Network Layer: Manages communication between devices using diverse network protocols.
  • Middleware Layer: Processes, stores, and facilitates communication between applications and devices.
  • Application Layer: Encompasses end-user applications utilizing IoT data for diverse purposes.

These layers collaborate to enable smooth communication and functionality in the Internet of Things ecosystem.

What are the drawbacks of IoT?

Disadvantages of IoT encompass:

  • Security Vulnerabilities: IoT devices are prone to cyber threats, posing privacy and security risks.
  • Privacy Concerns: The abundance of IoT-generated data raises privacy issues if not securely managed.
  • Interoperability Issues: Absence of standardized protocols may result in compatibility issues among different IoT devices.
  • Complexity and Expenses: Implementing and maintaining IoT systems can be intricate and costly, especially for large-scale deployments.
  • Limited Power Resources: Many IoT devices operate on constrained power, challenging the provision of consistent connectivity.
  • Job Displacement Potential: Automation via IoT may lead to job displacement in certain industries, impacting employment.
  • Ethical and Social Implications: IoT introduces ethical concerns regarding data ownership, consent, and potential misuse.
  • Connectivity Dependence: Reliance on network connectivity exposes IoT systems to disruptions, affecting functionality.
  • Regulatory Hurdles: Rapid IoT advancements often surpass regulatory frameworks, resulting in legal and compliance challenges.
  • Environmental Impact: Production and disposal of IoT devices contribute to electronic waste, raising environmental considerations.


In conclusion, our IoT Viva Questions and Answers guide is your comprehensive resource for mastering the intricacies of IoT interviews. By delving into key topics and understanding industry trends, you’re well-equipped to confidently answer commonly asked questions. Whether you’re a seasoned professional or new to the field, this guide empowers you to showcase your expertise in the dynamic realm of the Internet of Things. Elevate your knowledge, boost your interview performance, and pave the way for success in the evolving landscape of IoT. Furthermore, for in-depth training, consider exploring the IoT Course Syllabus provided by SLA Institute, ensuring you gain the necessary skills to excel in the field. Get ready to make a lasting impression and secure your position as a standout candidate in the world of IoT.

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