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Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Published On: February 21, 2024

Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Before a software application is released into production, manual testing is meant to find and fix bugs and feature issues. A manual tester verifies if a software program’s essential functionalities are present. Without the use of specialist automation tools, analysts carry out test cases and create summary error reports. Here’s a list of manual testing interview questions and answers that were meticulously prepared at SLA. Explore the future of software testing, along with emerging trends and technologies in the software testing field.

What is manual testing?

The technique of manually testing software programs to identify flaws without the use of automated tools or scripts is known as manual testing. To verify the software’s functionality, testers execute different operations on it while adhering to pre-established test cases.

What benefits do manual tests have over automated ones?

Manual testing enables exploratory testing, in which testers identify unexpected issues that automated tests would overlook. It functions well in scenarios where testing is done occasionally or once. Manual testing provides a human perspective that makes it feasible to examine usability, user experience, and aesthetics.

Explain the difference between verification and validation.

Validation guarantees that the program satisfies the needs and expectations of the user, whereas verification guarantees that the software satisfies the specifications laid down during the design phase.

Suggested Article: Test Automation Frameworks: Overview of Popular Testing Frameworks.

What is a test case?

A test case is a collection of parameters or conditions that a tester uses to assess whether a system is functioning properly or meeting requirements.

What is regression testing?

Regression testing is the process of retesting a software program to make sure that modifications haven’t altered any of its current functionality.

What is exploratory testing?

Exploratory testing is a non-formal testing methodology in which testers investigate the software program, become familiar with its features, and concurrently create and run test cases.

Explain the difference between smoke testing and sanity testing.

Sanity testing is done to confirm whether the defects have been fixed following a build or release, whereas smoke testing is done to make sure the software’s essential features are operating without a hitch before moving on to other tests. 

What is boundary testing?

To find flaws with boundary conditions, boundary testing is a test design technique where test cases are created with values at the extremes or limits of input domains, including minimum and maximum values.

What is usability testing?

Evaluating a software application’s user interface and user experience to ascertain how intuitive and user-friendly it is is known as usability testing.

Recommended Read: Mobile App Testing: Best Practices for Testing Mobile Applications.

Explain the concept of black-box testing.

Black-box testing is a type of testing in which the tester doesn’t know the internal code structure of the software program; instead, they only concentrate on the features and behaviors of the program. The requirements and specifications for the software are the source of test cases.

What is the purpose of a test plan?

The resources, timetable, methodology, and scope of testing operations are all described in a test plan. It ensures that every facet of the software application is adequately tested by acting as a roadmap for the testing team.

How do you prioritize test cases?

Prioritizing test cases can be done by taking into account variables like dependencies, complexity, risk, business effect, and frequency of use.

What is the difference between a defect and a failure?

A failure is an observable departure from expected behavior when the program is executed, whereas a defect is a flaw or mistake in the software code or design.

What are the concepts of positive and negative testing?

To verify that the program operates as intended, positive testing uses valid inputs, whereas negative testing uses invalid inputs to verify the software’s ability to handle errors.

What is the purpose of a test log?

All testing activities, including the execution of test cases, test results, flaws discovered, and any other pertinent data, are documented in a test log. In addition to acting as a historical record, it facilitates progress monitoring and well-informed decision-making.

What is ad-hoc testing?

Ad-hoc testing, sometimes referred to as random testing, is a non-formal testing strategy in which testers examine the program at random without adhering to any pre-established plans or test cases. It is typically carried out when formal testing time is limited or when testers wish to investigate particular program features.

Explain the concept of equivalence partitioning.

Equivalency partitioning is a method of test design in which test cases are created to cover various input data equivalency classes. After classifying or grouping the input domain into groups or classes that should behave similarly, testers choose sample test cases from each partition.

What distinguishes a test scenario from a test case?

A test scenario is a high-level description of a test case or a series of test cases that represent a specific user flow or business process. A test case is a comprehensive collection of steps, conditions, and inputs that a tester conducts to verify a specific capability of the software.

Explain the concept of test coverage.

Test coverage is a metric that indicates how much testing has been done on a piece of software. Depending on the testing objectives, it can be quantified in terms of requirement coverage (the proportion of requirements covered by test cases) or code coverage (the percentage of code run during testing).

What is the purpose of a test execution report?

An overview of the testing operations carried out, including the number of test cases executed, the pass/fail status, the number of defects discovered, and any other pertinent metrics, are provided by a test execution report. It functions as a communication tool to help stakeholders comprehend the test’s present state and make wise decisions.

Discover the load testing that ensures software can handle peak loads and heavy usage.

How do you handle test case maintenance in a dynamic environment?

Updating test cases to reflect modifications to the software program is known as test case maintenance. Testers must constantly examine and update their test cases in a dynamic environment, rank them according to changes, and make sure they are still applicable and efficient.

Differentiate manual testing and exploratory testing?

Exploratory testing is a more informal approach to testing where testers explore the software application, learn about its functionalities, and design and execute test cases simultaneously without predefined scripts. Manual testing is a formal testing method where testers follow predefined test cases and procedures.

What is the purpose of a traceability matrix?

Documents such as requirements, test cases, and defects that define relationships between different artifacts in the software development life cycle are called traceability matrices. It aids in making sure that test cases address every requirement and that errors are tracked down to their source.

How do you prioritize defects found during testing?

Prioritizing defects can be done by taking into account variables such as dependencies on other functionalities, frequency of occurrence, risk, and severity (effect on the company or user). Defects that are critical to fundamental functionality or security are typically given a higher priority than minor cosmetic ones.

What is the purpose of regression testing?

Regression testing is done to make sure that recent software application alterations or code changes haven’t added any new bugs or had unexpected negative effects on already-existing functionalities. Over several releases or iterations, it aids in preserving the software’s stability and integrity.

What is the purpose of a test case review?

To make sure test cases are relevant, accurate, full, and clear, a test case review is carried out. It guarantees that testing efforts are in line with project objectives and assists in locating errors in the test case documentation. 

What is a test environment setup and why is it important?

Configuring hardware, software, and network resources to create a controlled testing environment that closely mimics the production environment is known as a test environment setup. It is vital to guarantee that experiments are carried out in a realistic setting, precisely mirror end-user experiences, and yield dependable outcomes. 

How do you ensure thorough test coverage in your testing efforts?

Identifying and prioritizing test scenarios, creating thorough test cases, carrying out tests with rigor, utilizing testing strategies like boundary testing and equivalency partitioning, and routinely assessing and revising test plans in response to feedback and changing requirements are all ways to achieve thorough test coverage.

Suggested Resource: Software Testing vs. Quality Assurance.

How does functional testing differ from non-functional testing?

Verifying the software application’s functional requirements—such as its features, functioning, and behavior—is the main goal of functional testing. Verifying the software’s usability, performance, and other non-functional features, including compatibility, security, and scalability, is the main goal of non-functional testing.

In an agile development context, how do you approach regression testing?

Regression testing is frequently automated and incorporated into the continuous integration and continuous deployment (CI/CD) pipeline in an agile development environment. Using test automation frameworks and tools, regression tests are swiftly run and verified to make sure that no regressions have been introduced by recent modifications. As part of the development process, test suites are regularly executed to guarantee early fault detection and resolution.

What is the difference between system testing and acceptance testing?

System testing is done to confirm how the program behaves overall, making sure it satisfies all requirements and operates as intended in the intended setting. Contrarily, acceptance testing is done to confirm that the software satisfies business needs and is approved by stakeholders or end users.

Explain the concept of test data management.

The development, modification, and upkeep of test data utilized in software testing operations are all included in test data management. It involves activities including selecting relevant test data, creating or obtaining test data sets, guaranteeing data security and privacy, and efficiently managing test data repositories.

Useful Resource: Latest IT Salary in India for Freshers

What is the purpose of a defect report?

A defect report is intended to record and disseminate information regarding flaws or problems found during testing. It is sometimes referred to as a bug report or issue report. Typically, it contains information to help with defect resolution, such as the problem description, steps to reproduce, severity, priority, affected components, and any other pertinent details.

How do you ensure traceability between requirements and test cases?

Mapping every test case to its matching requirement or user story helps to guarantee traceability between requirements and test cases. Tools that enable connecting test cases to requirements or traceability matrices can be used to do this. Maintaining traceability also requires regular reviews and modifications of test cases in response to requirements changes.

What is test execution and how do you track test results?

To confirm the functionality and behavior of the software application, test cases are executed against it. Test results are tracked by recording the actual results that were observed during the test’s execution, contrasting them with the results that were anticipated according to the test cases, and noting any inconsistencies or flaws that were discovered.

What are the key principles of good test case design?

Clarity, completeness, accuracy, consistency, conciseness, relevance, reliability, and maintainability are the fundamentals of successful test case design. Test cases must to be clearly defined, cover the desired test scenarios, and be simple to comprehend.

How do you handle testing in a distributed or remote team environment?

Effective coordination, cooperation, and communication are critical in a distributed or remote team setting. Regular meetings, the use of platforms and tools for collaboration to share papers and test artifacts, clear documentation upkeep, and the establishment of standard operating procedures and testing activity protocols can all help achieve this.

What is the role of a tester in agile development?

By working with cross-functional teams, taking part in sprint planning and grooming sessions, creating and executing test cases, offering feedback on user stories, and consistently validating and verifying the software increments, testers play a critical role in ensuring the quality of the software product in agile development.

Also, read about the latest growing technologies in 2024.


There will always be a need for manual testers because software cannot be released without human eyes checking it for errors. The zero-tester approach breaks down when teams grow, exposing the truth that software testing cannot be fully automated for long-term viability. Manual testing will need to evolve and grow with technology to be relevant in the future. Manual testers need to include automation in their skill set rather than ignore it. We hope these manual testing interview questions and answers are useful for you to attain jobs at top companies. If you have not yet started, kick-start your career by learning in our manual testing training in Chennai at SLA.

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