Types of Software TestingApril 13, 2023 2023-11-07 14:46
Types of Software Testing
The purpose of testing is to detect bugs in a program by running it. Error-free operation is essential for our program. All bugs in the program will be eliminated if testing goes well.
The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) includes software testing as a crucial step in making sure that the final product meets expectations in terms of quality, stability, and functionality. Salary estimates for software testing engineers range from $95,000 and more, so it’s evident that this is a skill employers value highly.
Testing is the only way to guarantee that our program is free of bugs, hence it is essential that we employ various software testing techniques.
Yet, if you’re interested in learning about the various software testing methods, you’ve come to the right place. In this blog, we’ll define and discuss the various software testing methods that will be useful to you in the year 2023. To explore extensively about software testing training or software testing course, it is the best option to enroll in the software testing training in Chennai at SLA.
Software Testing: Basic Concepts
- Context matters in testing: Your test needs to be adapted to the specific application because each one has its own set of requirements and limits.
- Absence of bugs falsehood: The lack of errors does not imply that a software application is free of problems. It is important that software testing plans account for both known and unknown issues.
- Early testing: helps to uncover faults early, hence minimizing the cost and work required to correct them later.
- Pesticide paradox: When the same tests are run again, it’s possible that the same faults will be discovered while new ones go unnoticed. New scenarios should be added to tests on a regular basis.
- Defect clustering: a few modules in an application are usually to blame for the bulk of bugs, hence testing should concentrate on finding and fully testing these components.
- Comprehensive testing is impossible: There is no way to run tests for every potential combination of inputs and conditions since there are so many of them.
- A testing type is used to verify the AUT (Application Under Test).
- In order to begin testing, we should have all of the prerequisites and application-ready resources in place. For the sake of transparency, we should have multiple test engineers take responsibility for their own modules.
Types of Software Testing
There are two primary components of software testing:
- Manual Testing
- Automation Testing
Manual testing is the process of evaluating a product against predefined criteria without the aid of automation technology.
In other words, it is a method of checking and ensuring accuracy. Manual testing training is performed to confirm that an application or program does not act in a way that is not specified in the requirements document.
We can run manual test cases without in-depth familiarity with any specific testing tool. Manually testing an app allows us to quickly and easily create the test document. Joining SLA’s software testing course lets you to become a successful software tester making you earn in 6 figure salary.
Types of Manual Testing
The practice of manually testing software can be broken down even further into the following three categories:
- White Box Testing
- Black Box Testing
- Grey Box Testing
Let’s take a look at each one individually to get a firmer grasp:
White Box Testing
A developer will perform white-box testing by going through the code line by line before passing it off to the testing group or concerned test engineers. This approach, known as WBT, makes the code visible to developers during testing (White Box Testing).
To put it another way, the developer is responsible for carrying out all white-box testing before handing off the application to the testing team.
White box testing is used to improve an app’s security by focusing on its inputs and outputs rather than its internal workings.
There are several different names for what is commonly referred to as “white box testing,” including “open box testing,” “structural testing,” “glass box testing,” and “clear box testing.”
Black Box Testing
Manual testing comes in many forms; black-box testing is one of them. The software is tested by a test engineer, who compares it to the specifications, looks for problems, and reports them to the programmers.
After that, they will perform one round of White box testing and then send it to the testing team for further inspection.
When defects are eliminated and features are restored to their intended state, we say that the problems have been fixed.
The primary goal of black box testing is to define business requirements and/or consumer expectations.
In other words, black box testing is the procedure of verifying an application’s capability to do tasks as specified by the customer. This type of testing is known as black-box testing since the source code is not made available for inspection.
Different Black Box Tests
Below, we’ll break down black box testing into its two distinct subsets:
- Functional Testing
- Non-function Testing
Functional testing is when an engineer performs a comprehensive review of all parts to ensure they conform to the stated requirements. Functional testing shall also be referred to as Component testing.
Giving a value, specifying the output, and comparing the actual output with the expected value are all aspects of functional testing.
Because it focuses on the application’s specific requirements instead of the code itself, functional testing can be considered a subset of black-box testing. Instead of testing the entire system, the test engineer simply needs to verify the code.
Different Functional Tests and Their Types
Functional testing, like any other kind of testing, can be segmented into a few different sections, which are then categorized further into a few different groups.
The following categories are included in the many kinds of functional testing:
- Unit Testing
- Integration Testing
- System Testing
Let’s break each of these down and analyze them individually:
In order to test any software, the initial level of functional testing that must be completed is called unit testing. Unit testing is a type of testing in which the test engineer will test each individual module of an application separately or will test each individual module’s functionality.
The performance of the individual components of the unit is to be validated as the primary purpose of carrying out the unit testing. In this context, the term “unit” refers to a single testable function within a piece of software or an application. In addition, it is validated all the way through the particular application development phase.
After we have ensured that the unit testing was carried out effectively, we will move on to the integration testing. Integration testing is the second phase of functional testing, and its purpose is to evaluate the flow of data across dependent modules as well as the interface between two features.
The execution of the integration testing is done with the intention of verifying the consistency of the statements made by each module.
Several Kinds of Integrated Testing
The integration testing process can further be further broken down into the following components:
- Incremental Testing
- Non-Incremental Testing
Incremental Integration Testing
We utilize incremental integration testing whenever there is a distinct connection between the modules being tested. Let’s say we take two modules and examine the flow of data between them in order to determine whether or not they are functioning correctly.
If all of these modules are functioning correctly, then we may add one more module and perform another round of testing. In addition, we can keep doing everything the same way to achieve even greater outcomes.
In other words, we may conclude that incrementally bringing on more modules while simultaneously verifying the flow of data across modules is what’s known as “incremental integration testing.”
Types of Incremental Integration Testing
Testing for incremental integration can be further divided into two distinct categories, which are as follows:
- Top-down Incremental Integration Testing
- Bottom-up Incremental Integration Testing
Let’s take a quick look at an introduction to these different sorts of integration testing:
Top-down Incremental Integration Testing
Using this strategy, we will add the modules gradually (sometimes called “incrementally”) while simultaneously testing the flow of data between the various components. We have to make sure that the newly added modules are children of the modules that came before them in the chain.
Bottom-up Incremental Integration Testing
We will add the modules one at a time using the bottom-up methodology, and then we will test how the data flow between the modules. In addition to that, check to see that the newly added module is the one that is the parent of the modules that came before it.
Non-Incremental Integration Testing (Known also as the Big Bang Method)
When the data flow is complicated and it is difficult to determine who the parent is and who the child is, we will use the approach of non-incremental integration. The non-incremental approach is sometimes referred to as the “Big Bang” method. Become a software tester in Top MNC, by honing your testing skills by joining the best Software testing training in Chennai.
After we have completed the testing at the unit and integration levels, we will be able to go on to testing at the system level.
When performing system testing, the test environment is designed to replicate the production environment as closely as possible. It is also known as testing from beginning to end.
During this form of testing, we will examine every aspect of the software in order to determine whether or not the final feature satisfies the specifications set out by the organization. Then conduct an examination of the software product in the context of the entire system.
The following are the subtests that fall under the umbrella of non-functional testing, and we are going to talk more about them below:
- Performance Testing
- Usability Testing
- Compatibility Testing
During performance testing, the application being tested will have a load placed on it so that the test engineer can evaluate how well it performs.
For this particular kind of non-functional testing, the test engineer will only concentrate on a few characteristics, such as the software or application Response time, scalability, Load, and Stability.
Several Types of Performance Testing
Testing for performance encompasses a variety of testing subtypes, which can be broken down as follows:
- Load Testing
- Stress Testing
- Scalability Testing
- Stability Testing
We will execute load testing on the specific application in question while we are conducting performance testing on the application in question. The purpose of load testing is to determine how well an application performs under stress. In this case, the load might be greater than the targeted load or it might be the same.
It will assist us in determining the highest operational volume of the software as well as any bottlenecks that may exist.
It is utilized for the purpose of evaluating the user-friendliness and robustness of the software in excess of the typical functional boundaries.
Although it is most commonly used for testing mission-critical software, stress testing can be applied to any and all varieties of software applications.
Testing an application’s scalability involves analyzing its performance by increasing or decreasing the stress on certain balances. This type of testing is also known as load testing.
Testing for scalability also allows us to examine whether or not the system, its procedures, or its database are able to accommodate growing demand. And as a result, the Test Cases are designed and put into action in an effective manner.
Testing for stability is a process in which we evaluate the performance of the application by applying the load for a predetermined amount of time.
The primary focus is on determining whether or not there are any problems with the application’s consistency as well as the effectiveness of a newly manufactured product. Even under extreme pressure, this kind of testing allows us to quickly zero in on the location of the flaw in the system.
Usability testing is another kind of non-functional testing that can be done. During usability testing, we will evaluate how user-friendly an application is and search for problems in the end-user interface of the product.
The following characteristics of an application are referred to be “user-friendliness” in this context:
- End users ought to be able to perceive all of the application’s capabilities without much effort; hence, the program ought to be simple to comprehend.
- The appearance and operation of the application should be of high quality. This means that the application should have an appealing appearance and compel the end-user to want to make use of it.
During compatibility testing, we will verify that a program continues to perform as expected in a predefined set of hardware and software conditions. After the application has reached a stable state from a functional standpoint, we will proceed with compatibility testing.
In this context, “Software” refers to the fact that we can test the program on a variety of operating systems and browsers, and “hardware” refers to the fact that we can test the application on a variety of sizes.
Grey Box Testing
Testing in a grey box is an additional component of manual testing. Testing in both the black box and the white box is being combined here.
owing to the fact that grey box testing involves access to the application’s source code in order to build test scenarios. Testing that is performed with a grey box requires the tester to have knowledge of coding as well.
To put it another way, we can classify anything as grey box testing if it was performed by a specific individual who was responsible for both white box testing and black box testing.
Automated testing is widely regarded as the most important component of software testing. It eliminates the need for human intervention by automating manual design test cases with the use of specialized tools. Various Automation tools shall be learnt at ease with hands-on experience by enrolling in the software testing course in Chennai at SLA.
The most effective method for improving the effectiveness, productivity, and coverage of software testing is to make use of automation testing.
It is utilized to re-run the test scenarios, which were conducted manually, in a relatively short amount of time, and repeatedly.
To put it another way, we could say that if we test an application by making use of various tools, we are engaging in what is known as automation testing.
When the application or product has undergone a number of different releases or numerous regression cycles, we will switch to automation testing. Without having a working knowledge of the programming language, we will be unable to develop the test script or carry out automation testing.
Different other kinds of software testing
In software testing, we also have a few more forms of testing that are not included in any of the tests that have been covered above; yet, testing of this kind is necessary when testing any software or application.
Prior to performing one round of in-depth and comprehensive testing, we will first perform smoke testing on an application to validate its fundamental and essential functionality.
- Smoke Testing
- Exploratory Testing
- Regression Testing
- Sanity Testing
- User Acceptance Testing
- Security Testing
- Globalization Testing
- Adhoc Testing
Smoke testing involves examining all of the conceivable positive and negative results. The primary purpose of carrying out smoke testing is to accomplish the goal of analyzing the workflow of the core and primary functionalities of the application.
Graphical User Interface (GUI) Testing
The goal of this GUI testing is to ensure that the GUI satisfies the needs of the business. The Detailed Design Document and GUI Mockup Screens describe the expected user interface of the application.
All text, tables, and their contents, as well as the sizes of all buttons and input fields, must be properly aligned before a GUI may pass testing.
Additionally, it checks the application’s menu for correctness. The page’s stability and alignment are verified after making a variety of menu and menu item selections using the mouse.
The type of software testing that is utilized the most frequently is known as regression testing. In this context, the term regression suggests that we need to retest those components of an application that were not impacted.
Testing for regression issues is the type of testing that is best suited for automation technologies. Testing for regression can be very similar to testing for retesting, depending on the nature of the project and the availability of resources.
Regression testing is performed whenever a bug is fixed by the developers of a program, and then evaluating the other aspects of the apps to determine whether or not they have been simulated as a result of the repair.
In other words, we can state that if there is a new release for some project, then we may perform Regression Testing, and due to a new feature, it may influence the old features in the older versions. This is because of the possibility of backward compatibility issues.
User Acceptance Testing
The individual team known as the domain expert/customer or the client is the one responsible for carrying out the User acceptance testing, also known as UAT. User acceptability testing refers to the process of gaining familiarity with a program before agreeing to use its final version.
During user acceptance testing, both business and real-world scenarios, both of which take place in a separate setting referred to as the UAT environment, are analyzed. During this testing, we will test the application prior to submitting it to UAI for the approval of the customer.
It is used to make sure that all of the bugs have been fixed and that these changes have not introduced any new problems that need to be addressed. Because sanity testing is not pre-planned or automated, we are unable to document it. It verifies that the newly introduced features and components are functioning appropriately.
When we have a mission-critical application, our testing team always consists of seasoned testers and early iteration is essential if one of the requirements is missing. After the addition of a new test engineer to the team, we moved on to the exploratory testing phase.
In order to carry out the exploratory testing, we will first go through the application in every conceivable way, construct a test document, figure out how the program works, and then test the application.
It is a vital component of software testing, and its purpose is to identify any vulnerabilities, hazards, or threats that may exist inside the software program.
The successful completion of security testing will assist us in warding off malicious attacks from third parties and guaranteeing the safety of our software applications.
To put it another way, we can say that the primary purpose of security testing is to establish that the data will be secure and be able to withstand the operation of the software.
Testing for globalization is yet another subcategory of software testing. The purpose of globalization testing is to determine whether or not the generated software supports multiple languages. When applied to this context, the term “globalization” refers to adapting a program or software to support several languages.
Testing for globalization is done on an application to ensure that it will handle a number of different languages as well as a number of different features.
In the context of the current situation, we are able to observe the development of several technologies, which coincides with the preparation of applications for use on a worldwide scale.
Testing the functionality and user experience of a software program across a wide range of browsers, operating systems, and mobile devices are known as “cross-browser testing.”
Why is it important to test on several browsers? The reason for this is that not all consumers utilize the same OS, browser, or mobile device. The corporation wants satisfied customers regardless of the gadgets they utilize.
The browsers and mobile devices that make up a “browser stack” can be used to thoroughly evaluate an app. Take advantage of the browser stack’s free trial for a few days to get a feel for the platform.
Risk-based Testing (RBT)
Functionalities or needs are prioritized for testing in Risk-Based Testing. Critical features with high failure probabilities and wide-ranging effects on the business are the focus of Risk-Based Testing.
Once priorities have been determined for all features, the highest priority features or test cases will be conducted first, followed by the medium and low priority features.
Time constraints may dictate whether or not low-priority features are tested. When there isn’t enough time to thoroughly test the program before it’s scheduled to release, risk-based testing is used to minimize potential setbacks. This method is implemented only after consultation with the client and clearance from upper management.
Testing for accessibility ensures that the product can be used by those with different abilities. In this context, “disability” includes conditions such as color blindness, mental impairment, blindness, and advanced age. Font size for the visually impaired, color and contrast for the colorblind, etc. are only some of the things that are checked.
Browser Compatibility Testing
As a subset of Compatibility Testing (discussed further below), this is carried out by the testing crew. During Browser Compatibility Testing, web apps are put through their paces to make sure they function properly across a wide range of browsers and operating systems. The compatibility of a web app with different browser versions is also checked during this round of testing.
Mutation Testing is a form of white box testing that involves modifying the source code of an existing application to see if the existing test suite still detects the same bugs.
There was only a small change to the program’s source code, so it shouldn’t affect the whole application. But, there should be test cases to catch any problems it causes.
The objective of the tester is to “Break the System/Application,” and this objective is met through the use of the negative testing strategy.
When conducting negative testing, it is common practice to purposefully use fake or faked data or input. When an invalid input error is thrown, the system is verified to be functioning as intended.
Each given page or system shouldn’t take too long to load, and that speed should be maintained even under heavy usage. This testing is done with a variety of performance and load tools.
It’s a form of testing that ensures the program or system can get back up and running after some kind of failure.
A system’s ability to recover and resume normal operations is tested during recovery simulations. Let’s pretend a program is dependent on a network connection to acquire data and that connection is suddenly severed.
After some time, reconnect the network cable, and the computer should resume receiving data from the point at which the cable was disconnected.
It is performed to find security flaws in a system’s software, hardware, or network. If a system is susceptible to attacks, viruses, and worms, the hacker can take control of it using malicious software.
We need to make sure Vulnerability Testing is performed before production on those systems. Potential security holes and issues may be uncovered.
Ad-hoc testing refers to the process of testing the application in a haphazard manner as soon as the build is in the checked sequence.
It is also sometimes referred to as Gorilla testing and Monkey testing. Because during ad hoc testing we will test the application in a manner that is contrary to the requirements that the customer has specified, this type of testing is often referred to as negative testing.
When the end user is just playing about with the program, there is a chance that they will discover a bug. Despite this, the specialist test engineer makes extensive use of the software, and as a result, he or she might not notice a comparable alert.
To Sum Up
In this article, we have covered many different approaches to testing software. Yet, there is still an extensive list of over a hundred different types of tests. Yet, not every project requires or makes use of every sort of testing.
Black-box testing, white-box testing, functional testing, non-functional testing, regression testing, ad hoc testing, etc., are all examples of the most frequent kinds of software testing, and we’ve covered them all. Other organizations may employ different categorizations or procedures, but the fundamental idea is the same.
All of these testing procedures and techniques must be adapted as the project’s requirements and scope evolve. Such understanding on software testing could be gained on enrolling in software testing training in Chennai at SLA .