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LoadRunner Interview Questions and Answers

Published On: February 1, 2024

Dive into the world of LoadRunner, an essential tool for testing software performance! Whether you’re gearing up for LoadRunner interviews or just exploring, join us as we navigate through a collection of engaging LoadRunner Interview Questions and Answers. This article is your ultimate guide to boost confidence and excel in your interviews!

What does LoadRunner refer to?

LoadRunner, created by Micro Focus, is a performance testing tool that evaluates application performance under different loads. It simulates user behavior, measures performance metrics, and identifies bottlenecks. Supporting various protocols, LoadRunner assists in early issue identification and ensures applications can handle anticipated loads, optimizing performance in the software development life cycle.

List the components that constitute LoadRunner.

The components of LoadRunner include:

  • Virtual User Generator (VuGen): Used to create and design scripts.
  • Controller: Manages and oversees the execution of performance tests.
  • Load Generator: Executes scripts to simulate virtual users and generate load.
  • Analysis: Analyzes and interprets the results of performance tests.
  • VuGen Script Editor: Allows for the viewing and editing of generated scripts.
  • LoadRunner Agent: Executes tasks on load generators during performance tests.
  • LoadRunner Help Center: Offers extensive documentation and resources.

What is the recommended number of Virtual Users (VUsers) for effective load testing?

Determining the appropriate number of Virtual Users (VUsers) for load testing is contingent on various factors such as test objectives, expected user load, and performance requirements. There isn’t a fixed number, and it varies based on specific testing scenarios. To identify the optimal number:

  • Understand the anticipated user traffic under different conditions.
  • Define load test objectives, including scalability, reliability, and stress testing.
  • Establish performance goals, such as response time thresholds.
  • Evaluate system capacity to pinpoint potential bottlenecks.
  • Design scenarios that realistically replicate user behavior.
  • Start with a modest number of VUsers and gradually escalate the load.
  • Continuously monitor performance metrics to detect issues and make necessary adjustments.

Why is the “Vuser-init” important in LoadRunner scripts?

In LoadRunner scripts, the “Vuser-init” section plays a crucial role by executing setup tasks at the onset of each virtual user iteration in a performance test. This ensures test repeatability, manages scenario-level setup, and allocates distinct resources to each user. The section’s contribution enhances the precision and reliability of the performance test, maintaining consistency and accuracy across iterations.

Define the term “extended log” in the context of LoadRunner.

Within LoadRunner, the concept of an “extended log” generally pertains to heightened or more detailed logging settings employed during performance test execution. Activating the extended log captures additional information beyond the standard logging, offering a more comprehensive understanding of the application’s behavior, transaction flow, and potential issues. This feature proves valuable for diagnosing and troubleshooting performance bottlenecks and errors, particularly in the debugging and optimization stages of performance testing. Nevertheless, caution is advised when using extended logging to mitigate potential impacts on test performance and resource utilization stemming from larger log files.

What checkpoint types are offered in LoadRunner?

LoadRunner relies on checkpoints to validate application behavior in performance testing, encompassing key types like Text, Image, Bitmap, XML, Database, Accessibility, Standard, Page, Web Service, and Web Comparison. Covering aspects such as text strings, images, and database content, these checkpoints ensure the precision of application responses across diverse load conditions. With their distinct functionalities, checkpoints play a crucial role in thoroughly validating and assessing application behavior during performance tests.

What does the term “Manual Correlation” mean?

In LoadRunner, manual correlation refers to the manual identification and management of dynamic values within web requests during script recording. These dynamic values, such as session IDs or timestamps, are generated by web applications and require the tester’s active involvement for proper handling. Unlike automatic correlation, where dynamic values are identified automatically, manual correlation involves using scripting techniques and LoadRunner’s parameterization features to locate and manage these values manually. This approach is essential for accurately simulating user interactions, particularly in scenarios involving web applications with session-specific data. Manual correlation offers increased flexibility and control over the correlation process, allowing testers to adapt it to the specific requirements of the application being tested.

How do you recognize and address performance bottlenecks?

Identifying performance bottlenecks involves a structured approach during performance testing:

  • Define Metrics: Establish clear performance metrics, including response time and throughput.
  • Design Realistic Scenarios: Create scenarios that mirror genuine user behavior.
  • Execute Simulations: Use tools like LoadRunner or JMeter for diverse user load simulations.
  • Monitor Resources: Track key system resources, such as CPU and memory.
  • Analyze Performance Metrics: Evaluate response times and error rates.
  • Adjust Scripts: Correlate and parameterize scripts for accuracy.
  • Isolate Issues: Identify components causing delays or resource usage.
  • Assess Scalability: Test scalability with production-like loads.
  • Optimize Collaboration: Collaborate with development for code and configuration optimization.
  • Iterative Improvement: Continuously retest, document, and refine for ongoing enhancement.

Additional Read: Performance Testing: Ensuring Software Can Handle Expected User Loads

What is Elapsed Time in Load Runner?

In LoadRunner, Elapsed Time signifies the total duration required for the complete execution of a performance test, encompassing the initiation, execution of test scenarios, and the concluding phase. It serves as a comprehensive metric, capturing the entire time span of simulating user interactions. Monitoring Elapsed Time is crucial for evaluating the efficiency and performance of the application under specific load conditions, providing insights into responsiveness and stability. This metric offers a holistic view of the test’s duration, aiding in the assessment of overall test performance.

How does load testing differ from performance testing?

Load testing and performance testing are interconnected concepts within software testing, yet they concentrate on distinct facets when assessing system behavior.

AspectLoad TestingPerformance Testing
ObjectiveAssess how well the system handles a specific loadEvaluate the overall performance of the system
ScenarioSimulate a predefined number of concurrent usersExamine various aspects beyond a specific load
GoalDetermine system capacity and identify bottlenecksEnsure the system meets performance criteria
MetricsResponse times, throughput, resource utilizationResponse times, throughput, stability, scalability
ScopeSpecific to handling anticipated user loadEncompasses broader aspects of system performance

How can we perform functional testing under load?

Conducting functional testing under load involves assessing a system’s functionality while subjected to specified stress. The steps for this process include:

  • Define Test Scenarios: Clearly outline the functional aspects and scenarios for load testing.
  • Create Load Scenarios: Develop load scenarios simulating realistic user behavior and concurrent usage patterns.
  • Set Performance Metrics: Define performance metrics alongside functional requirements to measure system behavior under load.
  • Choose Testing Tools: Select appropriate load testing tools like Apache JMeter, LoadRunner, or Gatling to simulate concurrent users and generate load.
  • Script Functional Flows: Create scripts automating functional flows representing user interactions under varying load conditions.
  • Parameterize Test Data: Ensure dynamic data handling during load testing by parameterizing test data.
  • Execute Load Tests: Run load tests using the defined load scenarios and observe functional behavior under different loads.
  • Monitor Performance Metrics: Continuously monitor and analyze performance metrics, including response times, error rates, and throughput.
  • Identify Functional Issues: Detect any functional issues arising under load, such as data inconsistencies, transaction failures, or unexpected behavior.
  • Collaborate with Development: Work with the development team to address and resolve identified functional issues.
  • Iterative Testing: Iterate the load testing process by adjusting scenarios and scripts based on findings, and retest to ensure functional stability under varying loads.

By integrating functional testing into the load testing process, organizations can ensure comprehensive validation of not only performance aspects but also the core functionality of the system under realistic and challenging conditions.

In a Goal-Oriented Scenario of LoadRunner, what are the various types of objectives that can be defined?

Within LoadRunner’s Goal-Oriented Scenario, various types of goals can be established to specify performance objectives for the test:

  • Transaction Response Time: Define objectives based on the response time of particular transactions.
  • Hits per Second: Set goals according to the number of HTTP hits or requests per second.
  • Throughput: Establish goals for total data throughput measured in bytes per second.
  • Web Page Hits per Second: Set objectives based on the number of web page hits or requests per second.
  • Transaction Per Second: Define goals for the number of transactions processed per second.
  • Average Transaction Response Time: Set goals based on the average response time of all transactions.
  • 90th Percentile Transaction Response Time: Establish goals for the 90th percentile response time of transactions.
  • Errors Per Second: Define objectives based on the number of errors or failed transactions per second.
  • Transactions Passed: Set goals based on the percentage of transactions that must pass successfully.
  • Service Level Agreement (SLA): Define custom service level agreements based on specific criteria.

Which performance testing types are supported by LoadRunner?

LoadRunner facilitates a variety of performance testing types to assess an application’s behavior across different scenarios. These encompass Load Testing, Stress Testing, Volume Testing, Endurance Testing, Scalability Testing, Spike Testing, Concurrency Testing, Isolation Testing, Compatibility Testing, and Baseline Testing. Each type contributes to a thorough evaluation of the application’s reliability, scalability, and performance characteristics under varying conditions.

Which log types are generated by Vusers in LoadRunner?

During performance testing in LoadRunner, various types of Vuser logs are generated to provide detailed insights into the behavior and performance of virtual users. These logs include:

  • Vuser Script Log: Records the details of each step executed by virtual users during script execution, aiding in script debugging.
  • Vuser Run-time Log: Captures information about virtual user activities during runtime, including transactions, messages, and encountered errors.
  • Vuser Summary Log: Presents a summarized overview of virtual user activities, including response times, throughput, and transaction statistics.
  • Vuser Detail Log: Provides a more detailed version of the Vuser Summary Log, offering additional insights into transactions, events, and messages.
  • Vuser Status Log: Indicates the status of each virtual user during test execution, highlighting whether they passed or encountered issues.
  • Vuser Error Log: Focuses on capturing information related to errors faced by virtual users during the test run.

These logs play a crucial role in diagnosing issues, analyzing performance metrics, and understanding how virtual users interact with the tested application.

Additional Read: Load Testing: Ensuring Software Can Handle Peak Loads And Heavy Usage

What benefits does LoadRunner offer?

LoadRunner stands out as an effective tool for performance testing, offering a range of advantages to assess how applications behave under diverse conditions. Notable benefits encompass:

  • Versatility in Testing: LoadRunner accommodates various performance testing types, ensuring thorough evaluations like load and stress testing.
  • Realistic User Simulation: Capable of simulating extensive user populations, LoadRunner provides a lifelike assessment of application performance under varying loads.
  • Distributed Testing Capability: With support for distributed testing, LoadRunner enables simulations of dispersed user scenarios, enhancing realism in performance evaluations.
  • Adaptability to Protocols: The tool flexibly supports different protocols, making it suitable for testing diverse applications, including web, mobile, and databases.
  • Robust Analysis and Reporting: LoadRunner excels in detailed analysis and reporting, aiding in pinpointing performance bottlenecks and facilitating informed decision-making.
  • Scripting Flexibility: Test scripts in LoadRunner can be crafted using multiple scripting languages, providing flexibility for testers with varied skill sets.
  • Integration with Monitoring Tools: Seamlessly integrating with monitoring tools, LoadRunner empowers testers to gather and analyze performance metrics from diverse sources during test execution.
  • Scalability Testing Support: Facilitating scalability testing, LoadRunner assists organizations in evaluating how well their applications handle increased loads and user volumes.
  • Seamless CI/CD Integration: Integrating seamlessly into continuous integration and delivery pipelines, LoadRunner automates performance testing as an integral part of the development lifecycle.
  • Robust Community Support and Training: With a thriving user community, LoadRunner offers forums, documentation, and training resources, enhancing user support.

What modifications are possible to the run-time settings in LoadRunner?

In LoadRunner, runtime settings play a crucial role in defining the behavior of the virtual user during a performance test. Various changes can be made to runtime settings to tailor the testing environment. Some of the key adjustments include:

  • Run Logic: Adjust pacing, iteration, and scheduling to control virtual user interactions.
  • Think Time: Customize think time to simulate user delays and enhance realism.
  • Log Settings: Fine-tune the level of detail in the Vuser log for comprehensive analysis.
  • Web Page Download Options: Modify settings related to web page downloading, including page size and resource concurrency.
  • Content Check: Enable content checks to verify the presence of expected content in server responses.
  • IP Spoofing: Configure IP Spoofing settings to simulate various virtual users accessing the application from different IP addresses.
  • Speed Simulation: Emulate different network speeds to assess performance under varied conditions.
  • Think Time Enforcement: Specify whether to enforce or ignore think time in scripts, influencing pacing between virtual user actions.
  • Proxy Recording: Enable or disable proxy recording and configure settings to capture and record web traffic.
  • General Options: Configure general options such as automatic transactions, rendezvous points, and runtime measurement settings.

What does the term “ramp-up” mean in performance testing, and how can it be configured?

In LoadRunner, a ramp-up is the gradual increase in virtual users at the start of a performance test. To set a ramp-up:

  • Open the scenario in the LoadRunner Controller.
  • Access the “Run-Time Settings” and go to the “Pacing” tab.
  • Specify the initial and maximum number of virtual users, along with the duration.
  • Choose the pacing type (e.g., gradual or step).
  • Save the settings.

Configuring a ramp-up helps simulate realistic user adoption and reveals how the system performs under increasing loads, aiding in the identification of performance issues.

Which tools are essential for analyzing Vuser run results?

To analyze Vuser run results in LoadRunner, several tools are available for a comprehensive assessment of the application’s performance. These tools include:

  • LoadRunner Analysis: LoadRunner’s built-in Analysis tool offers various graphs, charts, and reports for detailed performance analysis.
  • Microsoft Excel: Test results can be exported to Microsoft Excel, allowing users to create custom charts and reports.
  • Third-Party Monitoring Tools: Integrating LoadRunner with tools like Grafana or Elasticsearch provides advanced visualization and monitoring capabilities.
  • LoadRunner Online Analysis: LoadRunner’s Online Analysis feature allows real-time insights during test execution.
  • LoadRunner Diagnostics: LoadRunner Diagnostics provides in-depth analysis of system resources, network activities, and server metrics.
  • LoadRunner Raw Results: Raw result data can be accessed and processed using scripts or custom tools for specific analysis needs.

These tools empower performance testers to thoroughly examine Vuser run results, identify bottlenecks, and optimize application performance based on informed decisions.

What is the purpose of a LoadRunner transaction?

The primary objective of LoadRunner transactions is to gauge the response time of specified activities or logical work units within the application. By incorporating transactions, users can gather data on the duration of specific actions and assess their performance under varying load conditions.

Key roles of LoadRunner transactions encompass:

  • Performance Evaluation: Transactions assist in measuring response times for particular operations, pinpointing potential bottlenecks, and identifying areas for enhancing application performance.
  • Establishing Benchmarks: Transactions aid in defining benchmarks for critical business processes, facilitating comparisons of performance metrics across diverse test conditions and iterations.
  • Operation Isolation: Transactions streamline the focused analysis of specific operations within a script, supplying detailed performance metrics for targeted areas and contributing to the identification of performance issues.
  • Analysis and Reporting: LoadRunner generates thorough reports and analyses based on defined transactions, providing insights into trends, patterns, and areas that may benefit from optimization.

What are the steps involved in debugging a LoadRunner script?

To debug a LoadRunner script, the process entails identifying and addressing issues or errors that might affect the script’s functionality or performance. The following steps can be taken to debug a LoadRunner script:

  • Script Review: Carefully examine the script for syntax errors, missing functions, and data-related issues.
  • Logging and Output: Utilize logging functions and output statements to capture crucial information during script execution.
  • Parameterization: Ensure accurate correlation and parameterization for dynamic values and data sources.
  • Think Time and Pacing: Verify realistic think time and pacing settings between actions.
  • Checkpoints: Include checkpoints to confirm expected results and identify issues with page rendering.
  • Transaction Timings: Review transaction markers for precise measurement of specific script portions.
  • Debug Mode: Employ LoadRunner’s debug mode for step-by-step script execution to identify issues.
  • Correlation: Resolve dynamic value handling by identifying and correcting correlation issues.
  • Script Re-execution: Re-run the script after implementing changes to assess the impact and check for issue resolution.

How do concurrent users differ from simultaneous users?

Concurrent UsersRefers to users who are actively interacting with a system or application simultaneously.Often used interchangeably with “simultaneous users” in contexts such as load testing and performance testing.
Simultaneous UsersDescribes users engaging with a system or application at the same time, commonly used synonymously with “concurrent users” in testing scenarios.Typically interchangeable with “concurrent users” when assessing system performance under various conditions.
DistinctionsAlthough subtle distinctions may exist based on context, both terms generally convey the concept of multiple users accessing a system concurrently.Understanding specific definitions within a given context is essential for accurate communication, considering team preferences.

What areas within system performance testing can be enhanced for improvement?

Improving various aspects of performance testing is essential to enhance the overall effectiveness of evaluating a system’s performance. The following are key areas that warrant attention for enhancement:

  • Test Planning: Clearly outline objectives, success criteria, and key performance indicators.
  • Scenario Design: Develop realistic test scenarios mirroring actual user behavior.
  • Data Management: Effectively handle test data with realistic sets and parameterization.
  • Environment Setup: Create production-like test environments with accurate configurations.
  • User Load Modeling: Fine-tune user load modeling to simulate a diverse user base.
  • Monitoring and Metrics: Improve monitoring capabilities and choose relevant performance metrics.
  • Test Execution: Optimize test execution parameters, including pacing and think time.
  • Results Analysis: Establish a robust process for analyzing and interpreting performance test results.
  • Collaboration and Communication: Foster collaboration between development, testing, and operations teams.
  • Automation and Continuous Testing: Boost test automation and integrate performance testing into CI/CD pipelines.


To conclude, this compilation of LoadRunner Interview Questions and Answers offers a comprehensive resource for those readying for LoadRunner-related interviews. It encompasses scripting, scenarios, advanced features, and best practices, catering to diverse skill levels. Whether you’re reinforcing foundational knowledge or revisiting advanced concepts, this resource proves beneficial for interview readiness. Strong communication skills and a robust understanding of LoadRunner principles are imperative. For more hands-on practice and in-depth knowledge, consider enrolling in LoadRunner Training in Chennai.

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