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Dot NET Interview Questions

Published On: April 12, 2023

Since the number of available jobs is on the rise, competition is high to find and hire the best .NET programmers. These Dot Net interview questions and answers will provide you with the background you need to confidently respond to the toughest challenges during a .NET job interview. This resource has been meticulously compiled after careful consideration of numerous criteria by a team of professionals and .NET experts.

Basic Dot NET Interview Questions for Freshers

What does .NET stand for?

.NET provides a framework for programmers to create programs for the Internet, mobile devices, desktop computers, and the Internet of Things. When it comes to application development, it’s compatible with a wide range of languages.

Explain the .NET framework 

Microsoft’s .NET framework is one of many available development environments for creating Windows-based software.

The primary functions of this framework are the creation of classes, libraries, and APIs, as well as the execution, debugging, and deployment of code into web services and apps. From C# and Visual Basic to Perl and beyond, it works with a wide variety of programming languages.

The.NET framework is an advocate for the object oriented programming style. 

What are some of the most typical.NET building blocks?

The.NET framework is composed of several different parts, some of which are listed below.

  • .NET Class Library
  • Language Runtime
  • .NET Framework
  • Profiling
  • Application Domain

What programming languages does the.NET Framework support?

Over sixty languages can be used with the.NET Framework; eleven of these are Microsoft languages.

What do you think are the most crucial features of.NET?

.NET is a free and open-source framework for developing software applications. It supports about 32 different languages. It’s really safe, and it works fine on a wide variety of computer systems.

How does the.NET Framework relate to OOP?

Object-oriented programming, or OOP, is a popular programming paradigm. Rather than using methods to implement functionality, this programming paradigm relies on independent units called “objects.” OOP in .NET enables the creation of classes and programs with logical sub-components such as methods, properties, fields, and events.

What does the JIT mean in .NET?

“JIT” is expanded as “Just in Time.” To quickly and easily transform intermediate code into native code, a compiler is utilized.

During execution, code in.NET is translated into the byte code, the native language. The central processing unit handles this, with support from the framework for the ensuing conversion.

How many distinct types of JIT Compilers exist?

A JIT Compiler can be one of three varieties:

  • Pre-JIT Compiler: At the moment of application deployment, the machine code is generated from the source code using a pre-JIT compiler.
  • Normal JIT Compiler: The source code methods needed at runtime are compiled into machine code and saved in the cache so that they can be called at a later time using the normal JIT Compiler.
  • Econo JIT Compiler: The methods that are needed only at runtime are compiled using Econo JIT and are not saved for later use.

What does “MSIL” stand for?

Microsoft Intermediate Language (or MSIL) is an abbreviation for this language. It’s used to hand out the necessary commands for things like memory management and exception handling. Instructions for initializing and storing values and methods can also be provided.

The next question in our .NET interview questions for freshers will center on a deep topic.

CTS: what is it?

Common Type System is an abbreviation for this. It is a well-organized set of guidelines detailing what the values of a certain data type should be. Its purpose is to catalog the user’s application’s various data structures.

However, the CTS rules can be used to construct your own calls. The primary purpose of CTS is to provide support for the many languages that can be used with the .NET framework.

Just what is CLS, exactly?

In the.NET framework, CLS refers to the Common Language Specification. It’s there to make sure the app’s creator can handle cross-language tasks if they come up. It’s an element that can be used in any language that’s compatible with the .NET framework.

Can you explain the meaning of CLR in .NET?

What we call the CLR today is the Common Language Runtime. It’s the backbone upon which many other services and applications are built.

Application code written in C# is compiled and transformed into intermediate code. CLR then takes over the code and modifies it in the following ways:

  • Libraries for loading
  • Memory management
  • Thread management
  • Security Protocols

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How does the.NET framework carry out the execution of managed code?

When managed code is run, it goes through four key stages. Here are some of them:

  • Selecting a compiler that can run the user’s code
  • After being compiled into Intermediate Language (IL), the code is sent to the CLR, which uses Just-in-Time (JIT) to compile it into native code.
  • The .NET runtime is now used to execute native programs.

What is “manage state” in a Dot NET application?

The purpose of state management is to keep track of the current and historical states of objects at runtime. An object can be anything from a web page to a controller.

The state can be managed in one of two ways:

  • A client-side data store is one that resides entirely on the client’s machine and is composed primarily of generic, low-complexity objects.
  • Server-side refers to the fact that the information is stored on the server, which also simplifies the process of managing and preserving the information that is stored on the server.

The following topic on this list of top Dot NET interview questions for freshers and experienced developers is a discussion of important topics.

What exactly is BCL?

The abbreviation for the Base Class Library is BCL. Included are value types, interfaces, and classes. Use it as a starting point when creating apps, components, and controls for the.NET Framework.

What precisely is FCL?

The Framework Class Library (FCL) is a library of reusable.NET Framework classes, interfaces, and data types. Its ability to grant access to the system’s features makes it useful for creating a wide range of applications.

Intermediate Dot NET Interview Questions For Experienced & Freshers

What is.NET caching?

The.NET Framework’s caching features make it possible to temporarily store data in RAM for easy re-use. As a result, speed is improved and scalability is increased, even if the data source is temporarily down.

What are the various types of caching in .NET?

These are the three types of caches in .NET:

  • Distributed Cache
  • In-Memory Cache
  • Persistent in-process Cache

Defining “cross-page posting”

When collecting data from a user across multiple pages, cross-page posting is used to send the form submission to a new page. Using the PostBackURL feature, you may designate the target page for your post.

What distinguishes value type from reference type?

Ans: Value Types and Reference Types are the two basic.NET Framework type categories. Information of a Value Type has its own dedicated space in the stack’s memory. A Reference Type stores a pointer to another memory address that stores the actual data, but it itself is kept in the heap.

What do the abbreviations “EXE” and “DLL” mean?

An EXE file is an executable program that can be launched on its own due to its built-in entry point. A Dynamic Link Library, or DLL, is a file that provides functionality to other programs but cannot be executed on its own.

Can you explain the distinction between Stack and Heap?

Allocating static memory on the stack is advantageous because it is fast and easy to keep track of. Memory can be allocated to variables at runtime and dynamically with the help of Heap. Heap memory access is more difficult and slower than stack memory access.

Explain the distinction between a Stack and a Queue

All additions and removals from a stack are made from the top, in accordance with the LIFO (Last-In, First-Out) concept. In contrast, a queue keeps track of items by inserting and removing them in a FIFO (First-In, First-Out) order. Elements in a queue are appended to the back and removed from the front.

System. string and system. StringBuilder, what are the key differences?

.String in the system are immutable and have a set length, however.StringBuilder can be modified and have varying lengths. While the .string’s size cannot be modified, the.stringbuilder’s can.

Can you describe the components of a.NET assembly?

An assembly can be broken down into four primary parts. Here are some of them:

  • The Resource: A Group of Associated Documents
  • MSIL: The code for the Intermediate Language.
  • Metadata: A program’s binary data.
  • A Manifest: A document detailing the assembly’s proceedings.

What are the benefits of utilizing sessions?

Utilizing a session comes with a variety of benefits, some of which are listed below for your reference:

  • It’s a way for an app to keep track of its users’ information over time.
  • The application makes it simple to incorporate and save any kind of object.
  • It is possible to store user data entities independently.
  • Objects are persisted on the runtime server and the session is encrypted.

In.NET, what exactly do “boxing” and “unboxing” mean?

When a user has to transform a value type into a reference type, they will employ the boxing procedure.

The process of unboxing is the inverse of boxing, and it involves converting a reference type again to a value type.

MVC: what is it?

The acronym MVC refers to the three layers of an application: the model, the view, and the controller. It’s the basis for constructing.NET programs and serves as an architectural model. It’s the basis for developing software programs.

As its name suggests, MVC consists of three parts:

  • Model: A tool for capturing information and retrieving it later.
  • View: The component of an application that is responsible for displaying the various contents.
  • Controllers: The objects responsible for processing user input.

Which memory types does the.NET framework support?

In.NET, you’ll find the following two varieties of memory:

  • Stack: A mechanism for performing static memory allocation
  • Heap: Refers to the process of dynamically allocating memory.

What exactly is the point of using delegation in .NET?

A delegate’s functionality is analogous to that of a function pointer in languages like C or Java. It allows you to hide references to methods inside of objects.

Following this, a delegate object can be supplied to a program and used to call the aforementioned method. The class also allows for the creation of custom events using a delegate.

Explore our Dot NET interview questions for freshers and experienced to learn everything you need to know to ace your interview.

Can you explain the distinction between the While loop and the For loop? What is the.NET syntax for both of these loops?

The For loop simplifies the process of designing the loop structure, while the While loop is a control flow statement that makes it possible for the code to be executed repeatedly. In contrast to the while loop, which just performs initialization and condition checking at the beginning, the For loop requires iteration statements.


While loop:

while(condition) {

//statements to execute.


For loop:

for(initialization; condition; Increment or decrement){

// statements to be executed.


Define the terms “derived class” and “base class.”

A base class is a class from where the derived class inherits members and functions and possibly adds its own attributes.  

What does a class’s extension method do?

Without changing the original type’s source code, the extension method allows additional methods to be added to an existing class or structure. No recompilation or other special treatment of the original type is required.

What exactly is inheritance?

Inheritance is a technique for building object hierarchies in which one class (the subclass) is derived from another (the base class).

How does the inheritance structure work?

An inheritance hierarchy is a tree structure with a single root used to group classes together.

Explain the differences between interface inheritance and implementation inheritance.

Inheritance at the implementation level occurs when a class takes on all of the characteristics of its parent class. When a class merely inherits the function signatures from another, we say that it uses interface inheritance.

If you don’t want a class to be inherited, how do you do it?

In C#The sealed keyword is used to safeguard a class from being inherited. In VB.NET, you can stop the class from being inherited by accident by using the NotInheritable keyword.

What is a constructor in C#?

When a new instance of a class is formed, it is passed a specific method of the class called the class’s constructor, which provides a set of instructions.

Can You Describe the Various C# Constructors?

The following are the five distinct varieties of constructors available in C#:

  • Default constructor: It is the default constructor, therefore it takes no arguments.
  • Parameterized constructor: It is a parameterized constructor, and it only takes one parameter.
  • Copy Constructor: This method constructs an object by copying the variables from another object and pasting them into the new object.
  • Static Constructor: It is built using a static keyword, and it will only be called once for each and every instance of the class that it is associated with.
  • Private Constructor: This means that the class was constructed using the private specifier, which prevents other classes from deriving from it or creating instances of it.

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What actually is an Interface?

The members of a class are declared in an interface. It’s a reference type with no concrete subtypes; all its members are abstract.

What are the delegates and events?

When a desired action occurs in a class or object, events inform other classes and objects. In CLI, a method’s signature is defined by a delegate, which is a type-safe function pointer.

Just what is business logic, exactly?

Coordination between the User Interface Layer and the Data Access Layer is the responsibility of the application processing layer.

What exactly is a.NET web service?

To put it simply, it’s part of the app that lets you broadcast the app’s functionality online so that anyone may use it. It’s hosted on a server and serves up content and functionality over HTTP and other widely-used protocols. (SOAP).

What are Web Services’ advantages?

The advantages of using Web Services include:

  • It’s easy to implement and works on many different systems.
  • It’s able to add new methods to its interface without breaking the client’s functionality.
  • It is also friendly to firewalls and has no particular state.

Tuples: what are they and how do they work?

Tuples, which are a form of data structure, are used to store object properties and can hold a sequence of components that belong to a variety of data types. Tuples were first introduced in.NET Framework 4.0 as a Tuple<T> class to eliminate the necessity for the creation of specialized types for storing object properties.

What is a Method Overriding?

Through a process known as “method overriding,” a derived class can call upon and use the same methods as its parent (base) class, right down to the function’s name, return type, and arguments.

So, what exactly is this thing called “Shadowing?”

Through the use of the shadow keyword, the child class can access the parent class’s method without having to use the override keyword. Method Hiding is another name for it.

What are the key differences between shadowing and overriding?

To prevent the base class method from being overridden in the future, shadowing is used to create a new implementation of the method. To achieve polymorphism, you can override a base class function and provide it with a new definition.

Advanced Level Dot NET Interview Questions for Experienced.

What prerequisites are necessary to implement connection pooling?

There are three primary conditions that must be met for connection pooling to function.

  • The availability of a connection string that is the same for both entities.
  • Multiple processes sharing the same set of connection settings
  • The use of conventional safety measures and configurations.

How many parameters can a tuple in.NET store?

In.NET, a tuple can have as few as two and as many as eight members. In the case of a larger than eight-member set, each additional element is declared as a new tuple.

Tuples are useful in.NET since they can be passed as parameters or utilized as the return type.

The Diamond of Death: What is it?

The presence of many inheritances in C# is the root cause of this issue in the language. Classes B and C are direct descendants of A, while a third class, D, is a direct descendant of both B and C but does not override the method that is specified in A. Class D faces the Diamond Problem when it must determine whether to inherit the modified version of the method from Class B or Class C.

How are controls different from the components?

A Component doesn’t draw itself on the form and can be positioned below the area that constitutes the form. Control will automatically draw itself onto the form, and it can be positioned anywhere inside the form space. Furthermore, all components are controls, but controls are not always components.

How can you tell the difference between user controls and custom controls?

The inheritance trees for User controls and Custom controls originate at separate nodes. In contrast to user control, which can be used in multiple programs, a custom control is made just for one.

What are the required functional and non-functional characteristics?

The functional requirements of a system are the fundamental and required features that must be included in the design. Non-functional requirements are characteristics linked to the quality that the system must provide.

Reflection in.NET: What Is It?

Type instances and runtime type information can both be obtained via reflection objects. These are System’s Classes.A program’s metadata can be accessed via the Reflection namespace while it’s being executed.

Explain the GAC or Global Assembly Cache.

A cache of machine-wide code is referred to as the Global Assembly Cache, and it is located in a folder within the Windows directory. It’s where all the .NET libraries that are meant to be used by many programs at once are kept.

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Why do we need Object-Role Modeling (ORM)?

Object-Role Modeling (ORM) is an effective technique for conceptually creating and querying information systems. The application is explained in a way that even non-technical people can follow.

The difference between globalization and localization.

The process of creating and coding programs that are both culture- and language-indifferent is referred to as globalization. The term “localization” refers to the process of adapting an application and translating its user interface for use in a given country or region.

MIME: What is it?

The acronym MIME refers to the “Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension” Non-ASCII data can now be delivered using SMTP thanks to this extra protocol. Bell Communications introduced it in 1991 as a means to make online file sharing easier.

What is meant by the term “hashtable”?

The Hashtable class maintains a database of key-value sets. The hash value of each key is used to categorize the pairs and provide access to the underlying data.

Compare Server. Transfer and Response. Redirect, what are the key distinctions?

They are used to take a visitor from one website to another. The response. redirect procedure makes a request for a different URL and provides that URL. The server. transfer method halts the current page’s execution and begins the next page’s execution.

Can you explain . NET’s Garbage Collection?

Automatic memory management is made possible by Garbage Collection in the.NET Framework. After all, processes involving an object in the heap have terminated, the memory associated with that object is freed automatically.

How does the Memory Heap break down?

There are three generations of data stored in the memory heap.

  • Generation 0: Temporary items are stored here. In this Generation, there is a regular & frequent collection of garbage taking place.
  • Generation 1: It is utilized for things that have a moderately long lifespan.
  • Generation 2: It is utilized for things that will last for an extended period of time.

What distinguishes the trace class from debug class?

The application’s development process requires access to the Debug class, which is only available in Debug mode. While the Trace class is used during application deployment, calls to it are included in both the Debug and Release modes.

Explain the differences between a Debug build and a Release build.

Breakpoints can be precisely placed in debug builds because they are not optimized. They include symbols for debugging, but the code in “Release” mode is optimized for speed or size and lacks any debug information.

Define the “application object.”

The Application object allows all of an app’s users to communicate with one another. ASP files that serve the same function can be linked together.

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How do you define the session object?

A Session object keeps track of user data and variables from the beginning to the end of a session.

Differentiate between managed and unmanaged codes and explain.

Managed code is executed by the Common Language Runtime (CLR), hence using the.NET Framework is required. Unmanaged code is written in a language other than one supported by the.NET Framework and does not rely on the CLR to run.

Hope these .NET Interview Questions give you insights into the complete Dot NET package and make you prepared for the Dot NET interview.

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