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CCNA Interview Questions

Published On: May 4, 2023

A Cisco certified network associate, often known as a CCNA exam, is a test that certifies IT professionals to be able to execute a variety of entry-level responsibilities within the information technology business. Aspiring applicants with the CCNA certification should expect to be asked a number of questions at the interview stage that center on the CCNA and its relevance to the role being sought.

Many well-known businesses around the world offer a wide variety of career paths in the networking field. Research shows that salaries of the CCNA professionals can be anywhere from $23,000 to $165,000. Here you will find CCNA Interview Questions for freshers and seasoned professionals.  

Therefore, you still have the potential to advance your career in CCNA Engineering if you put in the effort. If you’re hoping to land a job as a CCNA Engineer, SLA can help you get there by providing you with the Advanced CCNA Interview Questions 2023 you need to ace your interview.

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In order to help you get ready for your CCNA interview, we’ve compiled a list of the most often-asked CCNA interview questions and answers in real-time. Let’s check them out.

Explain the concept of “routing.

In order to get information from one place to another, a process known as “routing” must be performed. Routers, which are devices operating at the network layer, perform the task of routing data.

Networking: What Is It?

Connecting to or operating within a network requires the usage of networking. It’s the method of connecting computers together and communicating digitally through a network, whether wired or wireless.

What does the term “protocol” mean?

A protocol is a set of agreed-upon procedures for exchanging data between computing devices. Understanding the process of data movement between networks is useful for establishing and maintaining contact.

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What specifically is the function of the Data Link?

The Data Link layer’s responsibility is to ensure that communications are properly routed. Framing is another role that this layer plays.

Why are switches so beneficial?

The bits of an incoming signal are assembled into a frame by the switch. This allows it to access the frame, read the destination address, and then send it to the correct output port. As opposed to sending the data out over all available ports, this method is much more efficient.

What exactly is a network address? Explain the function of each component of a network address.

Packets have addresses, and those addresses are found in networks. Each IP address is composed of two parts: a network port, which specifies which data link the address belongs to, and a host or node part, which specifies which device on that data link the address belongs to.

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When does network traffic build up?

When several devices compete for a limited amount of bandwidth, the result is congestion. This is especially the case in large networks if network segmentation is not used.

In the context of computer networks, what exactly is a “Window”?

A Window is the maximum number of bytes that can be transmitted without eliciting an acknowledgment from the receiver.

Does a bridge make a larger network into several smaller ones?

Actually, no. A bridge’s real purpose is to filter data from a huge network without reducing its overall size.

In the CISCO Catalyst 5000, which local area network (LAN) switching method is implemented?

Store-and-forward switching is implemented in the CISCO Catalyst 5000. Before deciding whether or not to forward a particular data frame, it stores the entire frame in its buffers and checks it using a CRC.

What function does the LLC sublayer provide in this structure?

LLC stands for “Logical Link Control” in the network layer. It can supply extra features that a programmer can use at their discretion. Stop/start codes can be used to control traffic to the Network layer. The LLC also offers mistake-checking services.

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What sets IGRP apart from RIP?

To calculate the optimal path to a network, RIP counts the number of hops taken. However, IGRP considers many factors, including bandwidth, reliability, MTU, and hop count, before choosing a path.

Can you tell me about the various types of CISCO router memory?

The many forms of RAM found in a CISCO router are:

  • The initialization configuration file is saved in NVRAM.
  • Configuration files are typically kept in dynamic random access memory (DRAM).
  • Flash memory is where the Cisco IOS is kept.

What exactly is BootP?

Diskless workstations on a network can use the BootP protocol to start up. Boot Program is an abbreviation. BootP is also used by diskless workstations to discover their own IP address and the IP address of the server PC.

What does the role of the Application Layer serve in a network?

The Application Layer extends the scope of the OSI reference model by providing network services to application processes and supporting the application’s communication components. It also works to keep client and server apps in sync.

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Make a distinction between User Mode and Privileged Mode.

Regular tasks on a CISCO router are performed in User Mode, such as viewing system information, connecting to distant devices, and checking the router’s status. However, privileged mode provides access to everything User Mode does and more. This mode allows you to test and debug your router’s settings before saving them permanently.

Explain 100BaseFX.

This is a kind of Ethernet that uses optical fiber as the primary data transport mechanism. The “100” indicates a data transfer rate of 100 Megabits per second.

Distinguish between full- and half-duplex communication.

Full-duplex allows for simultaneous transmission and reception, or two-way communication, between the sending and receiving devices. Half-duplex communication means that sending and receiving are mutually exclusive.

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Describe the advantages offered by Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs).

VLANs make it possible to create collision domains based on groups in addition to the locations of devices physically present. With the help of virtual local area networks (VLANs), it is possible to set up networks utilizing a variety of methods, including those based on the type of hardware, function,  and protocol, amongst others. 

This is a significant benefit in comparison to traditional LANs, in which collision domains are constantly associated with a specific physical location.

What precisely is subnetting all about?

The creation of more manageable subnetworks from a larger parent network is referred to as subnetting. Each subnet that is a component of a network is given some extra parameters or an identifier to signify the subnet number that it corresponds to.

In the field of networking, what are the benefits of using a model with multiple layers?

There are several benefits that come with having a layered network. It gives administrators the ability to make modifications to one layer without necessitating modifications to the other layers. The networking sector strongly encourages specialization, which enables faster overall industry advancement. Administrators are also able to more effectively resolve issues when working with a layered model.

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What are the advantages of using UDP lease over TCP lease?

It’s due to the fact that UDP is unstable and sends data in no particular order. It is not able to create virtual circuits or acknowledgments in any way.

What are some of the standards that the Presentation layer is able to support?

The presentation layer adheres to a number of standards, which enables it to deliver data in the appropriate format. In terms of graphics, these include PICT, TIFF, and JPEG; in terms of video and audio, these include MIDI, MPEG, and QuickTime.

What is the most simple approach to configuring a router from a remote location?

The Cisco AutoInstall Procedure is the method that will serve you best in situations in which you will need to configure a router from a remote location. Having said that, the router has to have at least one of its interfaces linked to either the WAN or the LAN.

What information is displayed by the show protocol?

  • Protocols that are routed via the router and its configuration.
  • The address that has been given to each interface.
  • The method of encapsulation that was selected for each interface when it was being configured.

How do you illustrate an Internet Protocol (IP) address?

There are three distinct methods that it could be accomplished:

— by using the Dotted-decimal system. Take, for instance, the number

— utilizing Binary. Take this number as an illustration: 10000110.00111011.00110110.01110011

— by using the Hexadecimal system. For example 92 1F 10 A1

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How exactly do you switch over to privileged mode? How can you get out of developer mode and back into user mode?

At the prompt, type the word “enable” and hit enter. This will take you into privileged mode. Give the command “disable” to exit the administrator mode and return to user mode.

HDLC: What is it?

acronym HDLC refers to the High-Level Data Link Control protocol. It is a protocol that is exclusive to CISCO. Within CISCO routers, this encapsulation method is used as the default operation.

What is the main difference between hubs, switches, and routers?


In order to construct a frame, a signal must first be received by a switch. It moves the packets around the LAN to several different segments. When data is being transmitted at the OSI model’s Data Link or Network layers, it is the platform for controlling individual packets at that time. It is capable of supporting several collision domains in addition to a single broadcast domain.


A router is a device that acts as a gateway between two networks, allowing data packets to be sent from one network to another. At the very least, one local area network (LAN) must connect a router to the network(s) it serves (either LAN or WAN). Two different broadcast domains can be supported by a router.


If something enters the hub through one of its ports, the hub will distribute it to the other nodes in the network. It has a lower overall cost and requires the fewest number of steps. It only possesses one collision domain and one broadcast domain at any given time.

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How are the internetworks established?

When multiple networks are brought together by means of routers, the result is internetwork. To be more specific, the administrator of the network gives a unique logical address to each network that makes a connection to the router.

What is the definition of Bandwidth?

The amount of information that may be transmitted over a medium is referred to as its bandwidth. It is a measurement that determines how much volume a transmission channel is capable of handling, and it is measured in Kbps.

Describe the concepts of unicast, multicast, and broadcast in further detail.

  • Unicast denotes communication between a single user at a time.
  • The term “multicast” refers to communication from one person to multiple groups.
  • Broadcasting is a form of communication that specifies one-to-all dissemination.

Where do Hold-downs come into play?

By eliminating a link from update messages, hold-downs stop regular update messages from re-establishing a broken link, which would otherwise be reinstated by those messages. The hold-down timer is reset by the utilization of triggered updates.

What exactly is the key distinction between dynamic IP addressing and static IP addressing?

  • Static IP addresses are those that have been reserved, and they do not change over the course of time. Dynamic IP addresses, on the other hand, are those that can be modified whenever a user connects to the internet.
  • Static IP addresses are assigned manually, whereas dynamic IP addresses are assigned via a DHCP server. Static IP addresses cannot be changed.

Describe VLAN

The abbreviation for “Virtual Local Area Network” is “VLAN.”

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What is the key distinction between communicating and transmitting information?

The process of transmitting and receiving data over an externally linked data cable is referred to as communication, whereas the process of transmitting data from source to destination is referred to as transmission.

What exactly is a packet?

The act of encapsulating data leads to the creation of packets. These are the data that have been encapsulated using the various protocols that are found within the OSI layers. Datagrams are another term that can be used to refer to packets.

What exactly are the segments?

Data streams are broken up into segments at the top OSI levels where they are prepared for transmission to the network. Segments are also known as packets. At the Transport Layer, the logical units that make up the data are called segments.

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List some of the advantages of using LAN switching.

  • Enables data transmission as well as a reception in full duplex mode
  • Media rate adaptation
  • A migration process that is simple and effective

What in particular is the term “route poisoning”?

The process of adding a table entry with the value 16 to a route in order to render it unreachable is known as “route poisoning.” This method is utilized in order to eliminate issues that are brought about by inconsistencies in the route’s updates.

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What exactly is the Domain Name System, sometimes known as DNS?

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a service provided by the internet that transforms domain names into IP addresses. Everything that can be connected to the internet, such as mobile phones, laptops, websites, and so on, is assigned a specific IP address that is one of a kind.

Describe how the Collision Domain and the Broadcast Domain are distinct from one another.

Broadcasting Domain

In the Broadcast Domain, every juncture is capable of reaching every other juncture by means of  broadcasting at the Data Link Layer, and also every device is kept ready to receive its own data at its own discretion. It is highly able to bind to both the same LAN segments besides the other LAN segment.

For the purpose of broadcasting the data packets to the recipient, Broadcast Domain makes use of a local network. Since large amounts of data are transmitted during broadcasting, the rate at which one can receive that data is slower, and it also takes more time to receive the data pertaining to a person’s address.

Collision Domain

Because the Collision Domain requires the transmission of more frames at once, there is a higher risk of data collision occurring there.

If more than two frames are sent at the same time, the data will run into each other somewhere in the middle of the transmission, and the information will be lost. As a result, the devices will refuse to accept the data, and as a consequence of this, the communication between the sender and the receiver side will become garbled.

Because of this, the sender is required to retransmit the data, and as a result, it will take the receiver a significantly longer time to actually get the data.

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Which layer of the OSI model does Frame Relay Technology operate on?

On the Data Link Layer, it operates normally.

What exactly is meant by the term “Round Trip Time”?

The time it takes for a signal to deliver the data plus the amount of time it takes for the signal to get the acknowledgment from the receiver of that signal is referred to as the round-trip time or the round-trip delay.

What is meant by MTU and how big is it for transmission?

Maximum Transmission Unit is the abbreviation for MTU concept, and its size is 1500 bytes.

What are the key distinctions between CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA?

CSMA/CD, which stands for carrier sense multiple access with collision detection, is a technique for controlling media access that is typically implemented in local area networking. When a collision does take place, it resolves the issue by utilizing early Ethernet technology.

And in order to prevent a collision from occurring, the wireless network employs a protocol known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA).

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Define “Autonomous System.”

Either a single network or a collection of networks that are managed by a single directive might be considered to fall under this category. It is characterized by a one-of-a-kind number or code and is referred to as an Autonomous System Number, or ASN for short. There are also occasions when it is referred to as a routing domain.

The Interior Gateway Protocol, also known as IGP, is the protocol that is utilized for intra-AS communication between networks.

What is the purpose of utilizing ‘Service Password Encryption’?

The plaintext password is encrypted using Service Password Encryption, and the resulting password is a type 7 password. The level of security is low, and as a result, it is simple to decrypt.

Describe the DHCP scope in further detail.

The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, also known as DHCP, is the protocol that is utilized in order to automatically assign an IP host along with its address to a client.

Describe how Tracert and Traceroute are dissimilar from one another.

On a personal computer, you would use the Tracert command, while on a router or switch, you would use the Traceroute command.

What are the benefits of using distributed processing?

The benefits of distributed processing include decreased costs, increased performance and dependability, and increased levels of flexibility.

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What exactly do you mean when you say “redundancy”?

A method known as redundancy is one that offers backup paths in the event that either the network or the path fails.

Differentiate LAN, MAN, and WAN


LAN stands for “local area network,” and it is a type of network that connects computers and other network devices to one another locally, typically inside the same building or area. Connections in a LAN have to operate at a high rate of speed. Take, for instance, Ethernet


A metropolitan area network (MAN) is one in which the networks are connected in a widespread manner throughout a number of buildings located within the same metropolis. Take, for instance, the IUB Network.


WAN is for a wide area network, and it is a type of wide area network in which the networks belong to a single firm or organization but are open to the public. It is capable of connecting several LANs. The connection in the WAN is both quick and pricey due to its high speed. Example: Internet.

What does the acronym PING stand for?

The acronym PING stands for “Packet Internet Groper.” On a network that uses the Internet Protocol (IP), it is put to use to test the accessibility of a host. PINGing the receiver notifies them that data has been sent to them from the sender whenever any data is transmitted across the network using the IP addresses.

Define MAC Address.

The abbreviation for “Media Access Control address” is “MAC address.” ROM is where it is kept, and it has a definition that is one of a kind. Within the structure of the network, this particular layer is known as the Media Access Control layer.

How many different kinds of memories does a Cisco router make use of?

The following is a list of the several forms of memory that are currently in use:

  • Flash memory is where the system’s operating system (IOS) is kept. Memory chips may be electronically erased, and this one can also be reprogrammed.
  • The configuration file that is now being performed is stored in RAM. When a router is rebooted or shut down, the information that was stored in it is lost.
  • NVRAM is used to store the router’s startup configuration file, which is then read by the IOS when the router boots up.
  • Read Only Memory abbreviated as ROM. It will save the information even if the router is turned off and then turned back on again. It ensures that the instructions for POST diagnostics are kept up to date.

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What precisely are ARP and RARP?

An IP address can be mapped to a physical machine with the help of a protocol called ARP, which stands for Address Resolution Protocol.

The mapping of MAC addresses to IP addresses is accomplished with the help of RARP, which stands for the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol.

What are the many kinds of cables that are utilized in the process of routing?

The following are some of the several kinds of cables that are in use today:

  • Straight cable (switch-router) connection
  • Cross cable (also known as PC-to-PC or switch-to-switch)
  • A rollover cable, often known as a console port to a computer cable.

Give me a definition of logical topology.

Logical Topology refers to the network that the data packets travel over in order to go from the source to the destination, which is something that we can also observe.

What is meant by the term “peer to peer network”?

The peer-to-peer network, also known as a distributed and decentralized network, is one in which individual nodes, also known as peers in the networks, function as both suppliers and consumers of the resources.

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In CCNA, what does it mean to have a passive topology?

It is referred to as passive topology when the topology of the network only permits the computers on the network to merely observe and take in the signals. This is because these computers do not magnify the signals in any case.

What are the three factors that contribute to the weakening of a signal on a data link?

Attenuation, interference, and distortion are the three factors that contribute to a signal being less reliable via a data link. 

The resistance of the medium is directly related to the amount of attenuation that occurs. The presence of noise in the medium is directly responsible for interference. The reactive properties of the medium are responsible for distortion because they react in a unique way to various frequency components of the signal.

What are the many forms of passwords that are utilized in the process of securing a Cisco router?

On a Cisco router, a user has the option of configuring one of the following five types of passwords such as Activate, Consol Aux, VTY, Enable Password, and Enable Secret.

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Describe OSPF

OSPF- Open Shortest Path First. It is a link-state routing protocol that makes use of the Dijkstra algorithm. This protocol allows users to connect to a vast number of networks without imposing any restrictions on the total number of hops that can be taken.

What exactly does it mean to have dual access?

Within the framework of Multiple Access, it is possible for multiple devices to simultaneously transmit data.

Take, for instance, the Star or Mesh topologies.

What is the highest possible value of administration that you are allowed to use?


What does the abbreviation AAA stand for?

AAA stands for Authentication, Authorization & Accounting.

In order to enable VLSM, whatever feature of a routing protocol should it have?

It is imperative that the subnet mask of each destination address be included.

These CCNA interview questions and answers will assist anyone in getting through a CCNA interview successfully, regardless of their degree of experience or whether they are a recent graduate. Join SLA to take advantage of the best CCNA training in Chennai with impressive hands-on training and integral placement assistance.

And with that, we conclude CCNA interview questions 2023 that are being asked the most frequently during the interview. I have high hopes that you have gained a better understanding of both the fundamentals and more advanced ideas of networking as a result of reading this blog.

I really hope that you are prepared to take on any CCNA Interview even now!! Good Luck!

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